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Full text of "Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences Announcement"

Cornell University 

Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences 
1988 • 1989 



m 



Academic Calendar 1988-89 



1988 

Registration for Quarter I* and Fall 

semester**; orientation for new students 
Labor Day Holiday 
Quarter I and Fall semester begin 
Quarter 1 ends 
Examinations for Quarter I 
Registration for Quarter 11* 
Quarter II begins 
Thanksgiving recess 

Winter recess: Instruction suspended 5:00 p.m. 



Wednesday August 31 -Thursday September 1 
Monday September 5 
Tuesday September 6 
Friday October 28 

Friday October 28- Friday November 4 
Friday November 4 and Monday November 7 
Monday November 7 

Thursday and Friday November 24 and 25 
Friday December 16 



1989 



Winter recess: Instruction resumed 9:00 a.m. 
Last day for completing requirements for 

January degrees 
Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Birthday observed 
Quarter II and Fall semester end 
Conferral of January degrees 
Examinations for Quarter II 
Registration for Quarter III* and Spring 

semester*** 
Quarter III and Spring semester begin 
>X'ashington's Birthday observed 
Quarter 111 ends 
Examinations for Quarter 111 
Spring recess 

Registration for Quarter fV* 

Quarter FV begins 

Ninth Annual Vincent duVigneaud 

Memorial Research Symposium; no classes 
Last day for completing requirements for 

May degrees 
Commencement Day conferral of May degrees 
Memorial Day Holiday observed 
Quarter FV and Spring semester end 
Examinations for Quarter FV 



Tuesday January 3 

Friday January 13 

Monday January 16 

Wednesday January 18 

Thursday January 19 

Friday January 20 -Friday January 27 

Friday January 27 and Monday January 30 
Monday January 30 
Monday February 20 
Friday March 24 

Monday March 27- Friday March 31 
Monday April 3 -Friday April 7 
Friday, April 7 and Monday April 10 
Monday, April 10 

Tuesday May 2 

Friday, May 12 
Wednesday May 24 
Monday May 29 
Friday June 2 

Monday, June 5 — Friday. June 9 



Summer Term 1989 



Registration for summer research 

Summer research term begins 

I^t day for completing requirements for August 

degrees 
Summer research term ends 
Conferral of August degrees 



Monday June 26 
Monday June 26 

Wednesday August 16 
Friday August 18 
Monday August 2 1 



•for students enrolling in courses. 

•*for students conducting research only who are on leave of absence, or are in absentia. 
***for students changing from course work to research, who are going on leave of absence, or who are 
converting to in absentia status. 

Note: Courses are taught on a quarterly basis, degrees are granted at ends of the Fall and Spring semesters 
and of the summer term. The dates shown in the calendar are subject to change at any time by official 
action of ("ornell University 

In enacting this calendar, the Graduate School of Medical Sciences has scheduled classes on religious 
holidays. It is the intent of the school that students missing classes due to the observance of religious 
holidays be given ample opportunity to make 
up work. 



I 



Cornell University 



Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences 
1988 • 1989 




1 


Digitized by 


the Internet Archive 






in 2013 





http://archive.org/cletails/cornelluniversit1988corn 



Contents 



Calendar Inside cover 



Graduate School of Medical Sciences 

Purpose 1 

History 1 

Facilities 2 

Organization 2 

Special Programs(M.D.-Ph.D., Ph D -M.D.) 3 



Faculty and Research Activities 

Biochemistry • 7 

Cell Biology^ and Genetics 11 

Immunology 18 

Molecular Biology 24 

Neurobiology^ and Behavior 30 

Pharmacology 36 

Physiology and Biophysics 43 



Requirements and Course Offerings 

Admission 52 

Degree Requirements 53 

Tuition and Fees 55 

Financial Assistance 56 

Scholarships and Fellowships 57 

Awards and Prizes 57 

Student Health Serv ices 58 

Residence Halls 58 

Special Programs(M.D.-Ph.D.,Ph.D.-M.D.) 59 

Programs of Study 

Biochemistry 61 

Cell Biology^ and Genetics 62 

Immunology^ 63 

Molecular Biology 64 

Neurobiology and Behavior 65 

Pharmacology 66 

Physiology and Biophysics 68 



Register 71 



Index 92 



The courses and curricula described in this Catalog, and the teaching personnel 
listed herein, are as of July 1, 1988 and are subject to change at any time by official 
action of Cornell University. 



New^brk Hospital-Cornell Medical Center 




Cornell University 

Graduate School of Medical Sciences 



Purpose 

The Graduate School of Medical Sciences, a semi-autonomous component of the 
Graduate School of Cornell University, provides opportunities for advanced study and 
research training in specific areas of the biomedical sciences. Graduate programs 
leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy are offered in biochemistry cell biol- 
ogy and genetics, immunology, molecular biolog\', neurobiology and behavior, phar- 
macology, and in physiolog)' and biophysics. Certain of these fields of study also offer 
programs leading to the degree of Master of Science. Collaborative programs with 
C>ornell University Medical (x)llege lead to the combined degrees of Doctor of Philos- 
ophy and Doctor of Medicine. 

The facultA' of the Ciraduate School of Medical Sciences recommends the award 
of advanced general degrees not only as the result of the fulfillment of certain formal 
academic requirements, but also as evidence of the development and possession of a 
critical and creative ability in science. Demonstration of this abilit)' is embodied in a 
dissertation which the candidate presents to the faculty as an original research contri- 
bution in the chosen area of study 

A close working relationship between student and faculty is essential to the pro- 
gram of the Cornell University (iraduate School of Medical Sciences. Ciuidance for 
each student is provided by a Special Committee, a giv^)up of at least three faculty 
members selected by the student. This Special (x)mmittee is granted extraordinary 
independence in working with its student. Other than a broad framework of Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences requirements for residence, examinations, and a thesis, 
and additional requirements of the particular field of study chosen by the student, the 
Special Committee is free to design an individualized program of study with its stu- 
dents. No overall course, credit-hour, or grade requirements are set by the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences. A student is recommended for a degree whenever the 
Special Committee judges the student qualified. 

History 

The opportunity for graduate study leading to advanced general degrees in the 
biomedical sciences was first offered at the Cornell University Medical College, in co- 
operation with the Graduate School of Cornell Universit\; in 1912. In June of 1950, 
Cornell University, in association with the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Re- 
search, established additional opportunities for graduate study by forming the Sloan- 
Kettering Division of the Medical College. The resulting expansion of both graduate 
faculty and research training opportunities on the New York Cit}' Campus prompted 
the organization in January 1952 of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences, com- 
posed of two cooperative but separate divisions, known as the Medical College Divi- 
sion and the Sloan-Kettering Division. The Graduate School of Medical Sciences was 
given full responsibility tor advanced general degrees granted for study in residence 
on the New York City campus of Cornell University. 



1 



Facilities 



The Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences is part of a large biomed- 
ical center extending along York Avenue between 65th and 72nd Streets on Manhat- 
tan's East Side. This complex includes Cornell University Medical College, New York 
Hospital, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and The Rockefeller University. 
The core facilities of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences, which include the re- 
search laboratories of its faculty, are located within the Cornell Medical College- 
New York Hospital complex and the Howard, Kettering, and Schwartz Laboratory 
buildings of the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research. Other buildings in this 
area provide student housing and recreational facilities. Several dining rooms and 
snack bars are located in this complex, and the immediate neighborhood abounds in 
a large variety of restaurants. 

Especially noteworthy are two large biomedical libraries available to graduate 
students. The smaller of the two, the Medical Library— Nathan Cummings Center, 
contains over 27,000 books and journals. The Samuel J. Wood Library has a collection 
of 142,000 volumes and subscriptions to 2,900 journals. It is one of the country's first 
fully automated medical libraries featuring computer terminals which provide access 
to library materials and permit bibliographic searches in a number of data bases. A 
microcomputer center, with an extensive software collection, is maintained at the li- 
brary for staff and students. 

Organization 

The faculty of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences is composed of the profes- 
sional staffs of the basic science and clinical departments of Cornell University Medi- 
cal College, and of those professional staff members of the Sloan-Kettering Institute 
for Cancer Research who hold faculty appointments. 

Graduate training is offered in several areas of the biomedical sciences. These 
Programs of Study bring together faculty members who have related research and 
teaching interests. 

Executive Committee 

The Executive Committee is both the administrative and judicial board of the Gradu- 
ate School of Medical Sciences and its members have continuing responsibility for the 
academic affairs of the school. The Committee is composed of the Chairpersons of 
the graduate programs, the Dean and Associate Dean, the Provost for Medical Affairs 
of C:ornell University, the Director of the Sloan-Kettering Division, the Chairperson 
and Vice-Chairperson of the Faculty Advisory Committee (see below), and two non- 
voting, elected student representatives. 

The Executive (x)mmittee considers such matters involving the interests and 
policies of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences as are referred to it by the Faculty 
Advisory Committee, by individual members of the Faculty or are generated upon its 
own initiative. The Committee approves the addition or deletion of fields of study, re- 
views the admission of students, approves a student's major and minor fields, reviews 
the curriculum and requirements for degrees. 



2 



The Executive Committee is chaired by the Dean, who is the academic adminis- 
trative officer of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences and is also an Associate 
Dean of the Graduate School of Cornell University. The Associate Dean, -who is also an 
Assistant Dean of the Graduate School of Cornell University, is the Secretary of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee. 

Faculty Advisory Committee 

The Faculty Advisory Committee is the primary body representing the views of the 
Faculty of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. The Committee advises the Dean 
and the Executive Committee on the impact of educational and policy matters under 
their consideration and recommends changes in educational activities, procedures, 
and policy of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 

The Faculty Advisory Committee is composed of elected faculty representatives 
from the graduate programs and one elected student representative from each Divi- 
sion. The Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of the Committee are elected by its 
membership. Non-voting members are the Dean and Associate Dean, the Provost for 
Medical Affairs of Cornell University, and the Director of the Sloan-Kettering Division. 



Special Programs 

Medical Scientist Training Program (M.D.-Ph.D.) 

This program is designed to expose a student to both medical and graduate disci- 
plines during a six-year course of study The combination of skills in basic research 
and experience in a clinical setting will prepare graduates from this program to pur- 
sue investigative careers in the biomedical sciences or in clinical medicine. The stu- 
dent spends the first two years as a medical student studying the basic medical sci- 
ences and attending regular graduate seminar^. The summer months are spent in the 
laboratory learning experimental techniques and doing research. The third, fourth, 
and fifth years of the student's program are spent as a full-time graduate student and 
are devoted mainly to laboratory research and writing the thesis. The sixth year of the 
program is devoted to clinical clerkships. This six-year program represents the mini- 
mum time required to satisfy residence requirements of both the M.D. and Ph.D. de- 
grees at Cornell University. Successful applicants to the program will become M.D.- 
Ph.D. fellows and will receive a full tuition scholarship and a stipend covering living 
expenses for the six-year period. 

In this program, preclinical and clinical training leading to the M.D. degree are 
provided by the faculty and in the facilities of Cornell University Medical College. 
Special features have been introduced into the medical-school curriculum to reflect 
the training objectives of the M.D.-Ph.D. program. Graduate training in research lead- 
ing to the Ph.D. degree is provided under the auspices of the Cornell University Grad- 
uate School of Medical Sciences in the laboratories of faculty members located both 
in the Medical College and at the Sloan-Kettering Institute. 

For application to the M.D.-Ph.D. program, see p. 59. 



3 



Ph.D.-M.D. Program 



Students enrolled in the Graduate School of Medical Sciences may be eligible for ad- 
mission into the Ph.D.-M.D. Program, jointly sponsored by the Medical College and 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. This program is designed for those graduate 
students who find that their teaching and research goals require the acquisition of the 
M.D. degree in addition to the Ph.D. degree. The program is not designed as an alter- 
nate path for students who have the M.D. degree as their primary goal, but who have 
not been accepted by a medical school. Those who know, at the time of application to 
Cornell, that they want to pursue a course of study leading to both degrees should ap- 
ply to the M.D.-Ph.D. program described above. 

See p. 59 for application and graduation requirements of the Ph.D.-M.D. 
program. 



4 



Faculty and Research 
Activities 




nr. 





L * 


f -t 


N 





II] 



Biochemistry 



Faculty 



John P Blass 
Adele I. Boskey 
Esther M. Breslow 
Arthur J. L. Cooper 
Gordon E Eairc lough 
Jerald D. Gass 
Jack Goldstein 
Owen W. Griffith 
David P Hajjar 
Rudy H. Haschemeyer 
Bernard L. Horecker 
Chun-Yen Lai 



Ursula Muller-Eberhard 
Abraham Novogrodsky 
Julian R. Rachele (Emeritus) 
Albert L. Rubin 
Edward T. Schubert 
Richard I. Soffer 
Kurt H. Stenzel 
Suresh S. Tate 
Sidney Udenfriend 
Daniel Wellner 
Kenneth R. Woods 
David Zakim 



Alton Meister 



Research Activities 

Members of the Biochemistry program are engaged in research spanning a wide spec- 
trum of scientific areas. Thus, the research in Dr. Meister's laboratory is concerned 
with the study of enzymes, especially those involved in amino acid, peptide, and pro- 
tein metabolism. It involves the isolation of enzymes, the determination of their struc- 
ture and properties, and the use of techniques such as isolation of mRNA and cDNA. 
The research is basic in nature, but significant relationships between this research 
and human disease have been discovered and are also being explored. Current work 
involves the metabolism and function of glutathione, including the relationships of 
this tripeptide to transport, metabolism, radiation, and chemotherapy. 

Dr. Boskey's research is concerned with elucidating the factors controlling physi- 
ologic and dystrophic calcification. Hydroxyapatite formation and growth are studied 
in solution, in collagen gels in animal tissues, and in cell culture. Recent studies have 
concentrated on the mechanism of action of proteoglycans (a mineralization inhibi- 
tor) and acidic phospholipids (promoters of mineralization). Studies are also in pro- 
gress on: the role of vitamin D metabolites in bone lipid metabolism, the actions of 
matrix proteins in the regulation of calcification, and the effect of trace elements on 
bone metabolism. 

Dr Breslow is concerned with understanding the forces that determine the spec- 
ificity of protein-protein interactions and the relationship between protein structure 
and fijnction. She has been studying the interactions of the pituitary peptide hor- 
mones, oxytocin and vasopressin, with their storage protein, neurophysin. These 
studies are directed towards elucidating the binding site regions of the hormones and 
of the protein and at quantitating the energies of different components of the interac- 
tion. A second area of research concerns the mechanism by which proteins are de- 
graded intracellularly during normal protein turnover. The aims of these studies are 



^iews of Manhattan from 
^omell Medical College. 



7 



to understand the precise role of ubiquitin, a small protein known to be involved in 
this process, and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the selection of proteins for 
degradation. 

Dr. Cooper's laboratory is working in the area of a-keto acid biochemistry and 
pyridoxal phosphate enzymes. Another area of active research is the metabolism of 
amino acids and ammonia in the brain. For this purpose, molecules labeled with 
short-lived radioisotopes are synthesized and their distribution in brain is analyzed by 
positron emission tomography Cerebral energy metabolism, with particular empha- 
sis on the malate-aspartate shuttle, and its disruption in various disease states are also 
being investigated. 

Dr Goldstein is studying the structure and function and erythrocyte surface anti- 
gens and is working on enzymatic methods for the removal of immuno dominant sug- 
ars responsible for blood group A and B activity. He is also isolating and characterizing 
proteins exhibiting Rh structures, clarification of the genetic systems involved in Rh 
expression and modification of such antigenic sites by chemical and enzymatic 
procedures. 

Dr Griffith's research involves the design, synthesis and utilization in vivo of en- 
zyme-selective inhibitors and substrates. These compounds are used both to evaluate 
and to control the metabolite flux through various pathways in intact animals. Recent 
studies have focused on the manipulation of glutathione and cysteine metabolism. En- 
zyme-selective inhibitors were developed that allow both glutathione biosynthesis 
and utilization to be blocked; techniques allowing extracellular cystine formation to 
be controlled were also developed. Tfie inhibitors were shown to be useful in treat- 
ing animal trypanosomiasis, enhancing oxidative killing of tumor cells, and prevent- 
ing the formation of leukotriene C. New inhibitors are now being developed to allow 
in vivo control of carnitine metabolism. Applications of these compounds include 
the investigation and therapy of inherited diseases of lipid metabolism and diabetes. 

Studies are currently in progress in Dr Hajjafs laboratory to investigate the in- 
teraction of endothelial cells which line blood vessels with the underlying smooth 
muscle cells in an attempt to define the role of the endothelium in the process of cho- 
lesterol accumulation during arteriosclerosis. In addition, the role of herpes viruses 
as an etiological agent in the pathogenesis of lipid accumulation and artheriosclerosis 
is under investigation by studying the virus' effects on intracellular cholesterol me- 
tabolism and lipoprotein binding and metabolism. 

Research in Dr Haschemeyer's laboratory concentrates on the development of 
physical methods to study molecular structure and interactions. Current emphasis is 
directed toward computer modeling of biological flow methods and heterogeneous- 
phase reactions. Additional computer applications are directed toward defining prog- 
nostic factors and treatment protocols that optimize graft survival in kidney trans- 
plant patients. 

Dr Horecker is working on the isolation and characterization of peptides from 
the thymus gland and evaluation of their possible function as hormones that regulate 
cellular immunity. The ck)ning of the genes for prothymosin a and for parathymosin 
is a major current objective. Studies are also in progress on the properties of these 
substances as regulators of cellular immunity 

Dr Lai's research is concerned with the structure and function of biologically ac- 
tive proteins. Work from his laboratory has shown that subunit Al of cholera toxin is 
fully responsible for the toxin's ability to stimulate adenylate cyclase in mammalian 
cells. Isolated subunit A 1 was also shown to catalyze an efficient transfer of the ADP- 



8 



ribose moiety from NAD to a membrane protein. Structural studies revealed the pres- 
ence of a characteristic conformation for the NAD-binding site in the Al subunit. In 
another project, evidence has been obtained for a two-domain structure of the angi- 
otensin converting enzyme: the hydrophobic carboxy-terminal portion of the en- 
zyme is anchored to the cell membrane and the amino-terminal half, with the active 
site, is exposed to the blood circulation. Structural analyses indicate that the lung and 
testis enzymes may be the products of two distinct genes, and experiments are in pro- 
gress to explain the close similarities between the two enzymes. 

Dr. Muller-Eberhard is investigating the mechanisms of transport of iron proto- 
porphyrin IX and its metabolic precursors by proteins in the blood stream as well as 
within hepatocytes. She is studying the exchange of porphyrins between proteins 
purified from serum and from hepatocytes; developing methods which delineate the 
function of these proteins in the delivery of porphyrins to hepatocytes and their intra- 
cellular distribution; and assessing the interaction of these proteins with artificial and 
biological membranes to learn how they may facilitate ligand transport across cellular 
and intracellular barriers. 

The main objective of Dr. Soffer's research is to characterize the physical, chemi- 
cal, and biochemical properties of angiotensin II receptor which has been purified to 
a nearly homogeneous state from rabbit hepatic membranes. 

Dr Stenzel and Dr Novogrodsky are interested in determining mechanisms in- 
volved in the regression of metastatic kidney tumor mediated by autologous killer 
cells activated by the oxidizing mitogens and recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL2). They 
are using in vitro systems to determine mechanisms of cell mediated cytotoxicity. 
These investigations include an analysis of mononuclear cell sub-populations in- 
volved, mechanisms of target cell lysis (membrane structures vs soluble factors), tar- 
get specificity, and synergistic effects of additional biologic response modifiers. In 
vivo systems are used to determine mechanisms of tumor lysis in vivo mediated by 
administration of activated killer cells and rIL2 in mouse tumor models. Clinical stud- 
ies are underway in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma to determine effi- 
cacy and toxicit)' of adoptive immunotherapy. Alterations in patients' immune re- 
sponses are determined. These studies include a structural and functional analysis of 
circulating mononuclear cell populations. 

Dr Tate is investigating the mechanisms by which the kidney epithelial cell 
achieves its structural and functional polarity. Brush border membrane peptidases are 
being used as models to study the synthesis, membrane integration, processing, and 
intracellular targeting of these membrane proteins employing techniques of classical 
protein chemistry, immunology, cellular and molecular biology Other research in- 
volves characterization and regulation of expression of variant forms of a cell-surface 
glycoprotein in certain cancer cells. 

Research in Dr Wellner's laboratory is concerned with the structure and func- 
tion of enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, such as L-amino acid oxidase and 
threonine deaminase. Techniques employed for the study of protein structure include 
amino acid analysis and microsequencing using a gas-phase protein sequencer. Amino 
acid analyses of urine and blood of patients with inherited and acquired defects in 
amino acid metabolism are carried out as part of an effort to improve the diagnosis 
and treatment of these diseases. 



9 



Recent Publications 



Boskey, A. L. (with Weintroub, S. ), The effect of vitamin D deficiency on rat bone lipid composition. Bone 
7:277-281, 1986. 

Boskey, A. L., Phospholipids and C:alcification: An Overview in Cell Mediated Calcification andPatrix Vesi- 
cles {S. Yousuf Ali, Ed. ), Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. ( Biomedical Division ) pp. 175-79, 1986. 

Breslow, E. (with Peyton, D. and Sardana, V. ), Application of peptide-mediated ring current shifts to the 
study of neurophysin-peptide interactions: A partial model of the neurophysin-peptide complex. 
Biochemistry 2Cr.\'y\H-\'^2^, 1987 

Breslow, E. (with Burman, S., Chait, B. T. and Choudhary T), Partial assignment of disulfide pairs in neuro- 
physins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 148:827-833, 1987 

Cooper, A.J. L. (with Plum, K. ), Metabolism and physiology of cerebral ammonia. Physiol Rev. 67:440—519, 
1987 

Cooper, A.J. L. (with Nieves, E., C>oleman, A. E., Filc-DeRicco, S., and Gelbard, A. S. ), Short-term metabolic 
fate of [ '^N] ammonia in rat liver in vivo./ Biol Chem. 262:1073- 1080, 1987 

Goldstein, J. (with Lenny, L, Hurst, R. and Davis, D. ), Direct evidence for the presence of A antigens on 
Group B erythrocytes. Blood 70:109A, 1987 

Goldstein, J. (with Suyama, K. ), Isolation and initial characterization of Rh-related polypeptides. FASEB J., 
2:A1782, 1988. 

Griffith, O. W. (with Jenkins, D. I. ), Antiketogenic and hypoglycemic effects of aminocarnitine and acylami- 
nocarnitines. Proc Natl Acad. Sci U.S. A 83:290-294, 1986. 

Hajjar, D. P (with Marcus, A. J., and Hajjar, K. A. ) Interactions of arterial Cells: II. Studies on the mechanisms 
involved in endothelial cell modulation of cholesterol metabolism in co-cultured smooth muscle 
cells./. Biol. Chem., 262:6976-6981, 1987 

Hajjar, D. P (with Pomerantz, K. B., Falcone, D. J., and Grant, A.J. ) Human herpes virus infection in human 
arterial smooth muscle cells: Implications in arteriosclerosis./ Clin. Invest, 80:1317— 1321, 1987. 

Haschemeyer, R. (with Riggio, R. R., and Cheigh, J. S. ), Transplantation in the elderly, in Geriatric Nephrol- 
ogy (M E Michelis, B. B. Davis and H. G. Preuss, Eds. ), Field, Rich Associates, Inc., New York, pp. 
141-148,1986. 

Haschemeyer, R. H. (with Riggio, R. R., C^heigh, J. S., Suthanthiran, M., Saal, S. D., Tapia, L., Fotino, M., Sten- 
zel, K. H., and Rubin, A. L. ), Retroplacental -y-globulin (RPGG ) in cadaver renal transplantation: ad- 
junction use with low dose cyclosporine therapy Inserm, 154:337-344, 1987 

Horecker, B. L. (with Panneerselvam, C, Haritos, A. A., and Caldarella, J. ), Prothymosin ^ in human blood. 
Proc Natl Acad. Sci U.S.A, 84:4465-4469, 1987 

Horecker, B. L (with Goodall, G.J. ), Molecular cloning of the cDNA for rat spleen Thymosin p,„ and the de- 
duced amino acid sequence. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 256:402-405, 1987 

Lai, C. Y. (with Tyski, S., and Fujii, Y. ) Active fragment of the insecticidal toxin from B. thuringiensis. 
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 141:106- 111, 1986. 

Lai, C. Y. (with Duffy, L. K. ) A note on the predictive secondary structure of active chains of cholera and 
diphtheria toxins. Toxicon 24:204-206, 1986. 

Meister, A. Novel drugs that affect glutathione metabolism, in Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in Neoplastic 
Cells; Part // Enzymatic Basis of Drug Resistance. Academic Press, New York, pp. 99- 126, 1988. 

Meister, A. Modulation of glutathione levels and metabolism, in Biochemical Modulation of Anticancer 
Agents: Experimental and Clinical Approaches (FA. Valeriote and L. H. Baker, Eds. ), Martinus 
Nijhoff Publishing, Boston, pp. 245-276, 1988. 

Muller-Eberhard, II. ( with Metcalfe, S. A., DeFalco, M. G., Griffin, K. J., Liem, H. H. ) Studies on species cross- 
reactivity of hemopexin by use of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Biochem. Biophys. Res. 
Commun. 144:88-93, 1987 

Muller-Eberhard, IJ. (with Grieninger, G., Liang, T. J., Beuving, G., Goldfarb, V, Metcalfe, S. A. ) Hemopexin is 
a developmentally regulated, acute-phase plasma protein in the chicken./. Biol Chem., 261:15719— 
15724, 1986. 

Novogrodsky A. (with Wang, J., Suthanthiran, M., Walle, A., legman, M., Schwartz, R., Murthi, V, and Stenzel, 
K. ) Anti-tumor properties of lymphocytes activated by the oxidizing mitogens./. Immunol 
136:4735-4739, 1986. 



10 



Stenzel, K. H. (with Nordenberg, J., Wasserman, L, Beery, E., Aloni, D., Malik, H., and Novogrodsky, A. ) 

Growth inhibition of murine melanoma cells by butyric acid and dimethylsulfoxide. Exp. Cell Res. 
162:77-85, 1986. 

Stenzel, K. (with Wang, J., Suthanthiran, M., Walle, A., Lagman, M., Schwartz, R., Murthi, V, and Novogrodsky, 
A. ) Anti-tumor properties of lymphocytes activated by the oxidizing mitogens./ Immunol 
136:4735-4739, 1986. 

Tate, S. S. (with Galbraith, R. A. ), A human hepatoma cell line expresses a single-chain form of 7-glutamyl 
transpeptidase./ Biol Chem., 262:11,403-11,406, 1987 

Tate, S. S. (with Khadse, Y, and Wellner, D. ), Renal 7-glutamyl transpeptidases: Structural and immunologi- 
cal studies. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 262:397-408, 1988. 

Wellner, D. (with Cioldfarb, V, Trimble. R. B., DeFaIco, M., Liem, H. H., Metcalfe, S. A., and Muller-Eberhard, 
U. ) An avian serum a 1 -glycoprotein, hemopexin, differing significantly in both amino acid and car- 
bohydrate composition from mammalian ( P -glycoprotein ) counterparts. Biochefnistry 25:6555- 
6562, 1986. 

Wellner, D. ( with Phillips. H C, Thaler. H. T. Berger. C. A.. Fleisher. M.. Allen. J. C. and Rottenberg, D. A, ) 
Acute high-dose methotrexate neurotoxicity in the rat. Arm. Neurol 20:583-589, 1986. 



Research Activities 

The faculty of the Program in Cell Biology and Genetics conduct research in a broad 
range of fields which include the most exciting areas of genetics and cell, develop- 
mental and molecular biology Specific interests include the developmental biology of 



Cell Biology and Genetics 



Faculty 



Rosemary E Bachvarova 
David M. Bader 
J. Michael Bedford 
June L. Biedler 
Anthony M. C. Brown 
Raju S. K. Chaganti 
Moses V. Chao 
Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz 
David B. Donner 
Magdalena Eisinger 
Donald A. Fischman 
James L. German, III 
Marvin Gershengorn 
Eric A. Jafife 
Irwin Klein 
lone A. Kourides 
Paul A. Marks 



Malcolm A. S. Moore 
Ralph L Nachman 
C^arl Nathan 
Joel D. Pardee 
Louis M. Pelus 
Richard A. Rifkind 
Enrique Rodriguez-Boulan 
Anuradha D. Saad 
Marcello Siniscalco 
Martin Sonenberg 
Lisa Staiano-Coico 
Paul Szabo 
Martin Teintze 
Paula Traktman 
Doris A. Wall 
Perrin C. White 
David Zakim 



11 



the early embryo and of muscle tissues; membrane biology; cell motility and the cyto- 
skeleton; the molecular biolog\' of cell growth, differentiation and oncogenic transfor- 
mation; endocrinolog)^ and hormone receptors; human cyto-, population and somatic 
cell genetics; molecular virology: These studies are pursued using the most current 
cell biological, genetic, molecular and immunological methodologies in modern and 
well-equipped facilities. 

Dr. Bachvarova is interested in gene expression during early mammalian devel- 
opment. The following areas are being investigated: control of translation of endo- 
genous and injected mRNAs during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes, the role of 
small RNAs in this process, and the expression of genes with a possible regulatory 
role in pre- and early postimplantation embryos. Dr. Bader's laboratory is concerned 
with the development of the heart. Specific interests are the differential expression of 
myosin hea\T chains in the developing myocardium, and the mechanisms by which 
myocardial heterogeneity- are generated. Monoclonal antibody and recombinant DNA 
technologies provide the basis for these studies of cardiac myogenesis in vivo and in 
vitro. Processes in both the male and female reproductive systems which contribute 
to conception are the focus of research in Dr Bedford's laboratory. The cellular 
events undergone by spermatozoa during their maturation in the epididymis are un- 
der study; in the female, research is directed toward understanding sperm capacita- 
tion, sperm transport to the site of fertilization, and to the mechanism of fertilization. 

Dr Biedler's research concerns the genetic mechanisms underlying the cellular 
acquisition of resistance to cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Of current interest is 
the development of multidrug resistance, whereby cells selected with a single agent 
become cross-resistant to a wide variet}' of drugs. At least two amplified genes with a 
role in this process have been identified and are being studied. A second area of re- 
search is the cell biolog\' of human neuroblastoma. This system, too, involves amplifi- 
cation of a specific gene and consequent cytogenetic abnormalities. Current studies 
are focused on the correlation of the differential expression of the N-myc oncogene 
and the EOF receptor gene with varying states of malignant transformation and/or 
cell differentiation. Dr Brown is studying the molecular mechanisms of oncogene ac- 
tion, concentrating on tumors induced by the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). 
A major focus of his research is the function of the proto-oncogene int-l, which is ac- 
tivated by iMMTV in mammary tumors and is also implicated in early embryonic de- 
velopment of the nervous system. The major aim of Dr Chagantfs research is to de- 
fine, using molecular, cytogenetic, and genetic epidemiologic methods, the role 
played by hereditary factors in the etiology- of leukemia and cancer in humans. 

Dr Chao's research interests focus on gene expression and regulation in mam- 
malian cells. Molecular genetic techniques are being applied to the gene for the nerve 
growth factor receptor and the role of the receptor in the mechanism of action of 
NGF and in the development of the nervous system. The development of cytochemi- 
cal, biophysical, and molecular probes and techniques for the analysis of normal and 
tumor cells is the focus of Dr Darzynkieu^icz's efforts. These probes may aid in can- 
cer diagnosis, classification, and therapeutic evaluation. Mechanistic studies on the 
pharmacological action of DNA intercalating agents on tumor cells are also being un- 
dertaken. Dr Donner is studying the molecular basis for signal transduction through 
peptide hormone and cytokine receptors. A major focus of present research is the 
structure, function and regulation of the receptor for tumor necrosis factor 

The identification and characterization of factors involved in growth stimulation 
or differentiation of skin melanocytes and keratinocytes in vitro, and the effect of 



12 



cells grown in tissue culture and growth factors on wound healing in vivo, is the fo- 
cus of Dr. Eisinger 's work. Dr. Fischman 's research focuses on the cell and molecular 
biology of sarcomere assembly in developing skeletal and cardiac muscle. Monoclonal 
antibody and recombinant DNA technologies, as well as electron microscopy and flu- 
orescence energ}' transfer, are being applied to the study of post-translation steps in- 
volved in myofibrillogenesis. Several aspects of human genetics are under study in Dr 
German's laboratory, including disturbances of malformation, disturbances of sexual 
development, and human cancer Somatic cell genetic, cytogenetic, and molecular ge- 
netic approaches are being used. 

The focus of Dr Gershengom's laboratory is the understanding of hormonal reg- 
ulation of cellular secretion. In particular, the stimulation of the anterior pituitary 
gland's secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by thyrotropin-releas- 
ing hormone is under study. Research is now centered on the inositol lipid-calciurn- 
protein kinase C pathway for signal transduction by TRH and the molecular details of 
the interaction of the TRH-receptor, G protein and the effector enzyme, a phospholi- 
pase C. Dr Jaffe's interest is in the response of endothelial cells to exogenous stimuli; 
current research includes study of the interaction of thrombin and other physiologi- 
cal agonists with endothelial cell surface proteins and the resultant induction of pros- 
taglandin production. Interactions of endothelial cells and white blood cells are also 
under study. 

Dr Klein is studying the effects of cardiac contractility' and thyroid hormone on 
the regulation of cardiac myosin synthesis. Hormonal regulation of gene expression is 
the focus of Dr Kourides' research. Of major interest to Drs. Marks and Rifkind are 
the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control coordinated gene expression and 
proliferation during induced cell differentiation. The principal experimental model is 
the murine erythroleukemia cell (MELC ), which is a virally transformed red blood 
cell precursor arrested at a stage of the lineage called the colony-forming cell for 
erythropoiesis. A number of defined chemical agents can induce MELC to express the 
genetic program of erythroid differentiation. Present studies address the signal mech- 
anisms triggered by inducing agents, the mechanism of induced gene expression, and 
the identification and cloning of genes implicated in the programmed cessation of cell 
proliferation. 

Dr Moore's Laboratory of Developmental Hematopoiesis is engaged in studies on 
the action of a family of hematopoietic growth factors on normal and leukemic bone 
marrow cells, in both experimental animal systems, and in clinical trial situations. 
The research involves in vitro tissue culture, in vivo experiments in immune and 
myelosuppressed animals, and molecular analysis of growth factor production and 
response. 

The focus of work in Dr Nachman's laboratory is the biochemistry of platelet 
membranes and the macromolecular assembly of adhesive proteins on various cell 
surfaces and in the extracellular matrix. The structure and function of endothelial 
cell membranes is also under study. Dr Nathan's efforts are aimed at understanding 
how phagocytic leukocytes kill microbes, tumor cells, and normal host elements at 
inflammatory sites. Investigations into the biochemical bases of cytotoxicity by mac- 
rophages and granulocytes are integrated into a context of cell biology and clinical in- 
vestigation. Dr Pardee's research is concerned with the regulation of the actin cyto- 
skeleton by actin-binding proteins. Regulatory proteins, such as myosin, severin and 
an actin filament bundling factor, have been isolated and are being analyzed for their 
roles in cell migration, cell-substrate adhesion and neoplastic transformation. Dr Pe- 



13 



lus's primary interest concerns the regulation of hematopoiesis; the roles of prostag- 
landin E, TNF, IL-1 and other, cell-derived regulators of this process are currently un- 
der investigation. A primary focus of Dr Pelus's laboratory is the delineation of the 
roles of hematopoietic growth factors in in vivo animal models. In this context, a 
novel inhibitory pathway has been identified in vivo which may have significant ef- 
fects in protecting hematopoiesis from the effects of chemotherapy. 

Dr. Rodriguez-Boulan's main interest is an understanding of the cellular and mo- 
lecular mechanisms that regulate the traffic and targeting of membrane proteins in 
eucaryotic cells, with an emphasis on the polarized distribution of apical and basola- 
teral plasma membrane proteins in epithelial cells. The experimental approaches uti- 
lized include cell and molecular biology, virology, immunology and electrophysiology. 
Biophysical analyses of thick filament assembly and myosin exchange in adult and em- 
bryonic skeletal muscle are the focus of Dr. Saad's research effort. 

The primary efforts in Dr Siniscalco's laboratory are the mapping of the human 
genome and its application to molecular diagnostics and the investigation of chromo- 
somal fragility with special reference to aging and malignancy The long-range objec- 
tive of Dr Sonenberg is the molecular description of membrane transduction of pep- 
tide hormonal messages after interaction with a specific membrane receptor or other 
membrane component. Dr Staiano-Coico's research involves the investigation of epi- 
dermal cell maturation and differentiation in culture in conjunction with preclinical 
and clinical studies on the usefulness of epidermal cell sheets as transplantable grafts. 
The use of flow cytometry in the detection of individuals at high risk for the develop- 
ment of colorectal cancer is also being examined. 

Dr Szabo's laboratory is investigating the molecular basis of cellular senescence, 
specifically concentrating on those genes which are normally expressed during the 
GO quiescent stage of the cell cycle but whose dysregulation may lead to senescence. 
Also under study is the molecular genetics of age-related disorders such as Alz- 
heimer's disease in humans. At present, Dr Teintze's research is focused on two areas: 
the mechanism by which membrane proteins insert into the lipid bilayer, using model 
membrane systems, and the mechanism by which certain proteins are sorted to spe- 
cific membranes within eukaryotic cells. The main focus of Dr Traktman's research 
is a molecular genetic analysis of vaccinia virus. Of particular interest are the tem- 
poral regulation of gene expression and the coordination of viral DNA replication. A 
variety of molecular, genetic and biochemical techniques are being employed to iden- 
tify and characterize the viral genes and enzymes involved in DNA replication, homol- 
ogous recombination, and the maintenance of DNA conformation. 

Dr Wall's laboratory conducts research in membrane biology, with an emphasis 
on receptor- mediated endocytosis and an analysis of intracellular membrane systems. 
The Xenopus oocyte is being used as a model cell to study the pathways of ligands 
and receptors during endocytosis, and the establishment and maintenance of distinct 
membrane systems during oogenesis and early embryonic development. The major 
projects in Dr White's laboratory concern the relationships between structure and 
ftinction of cytochrome P450 enzymes, in particular the mechanisms by which muta- 
tions in genes encoding such enzymes cause human disease. The primary focus is on 
inherited defects of steroid metabolism. The main interests of Dr Zakim's laboratory 
are interactions, within the plane of a membrane, between lipids and enzymes and be- 
tween lipids and small hydrophobic substances. The major emphasis is on how the 
physical and chemical properties of the lipids regulate the function of integral mem- 
brane proteins. 



14 



Recent Publications 



Bachvarova, R. (with Payton. B. V. ), Expression of repetitive sequences in mouse oocytes, in Molecular Ap- 
proaches to Dei'elopmenta I Biology, eds. R. A. Firtel and E. H. Davidson, 1987. 

Bachvarova, R. (with Payton, B. V and Rempel, R. ). Changes in state of adenylation and time course of de- 
gradation of maternal mRNAs during oocyte maturation and early embryonic development in the 
mouse. Devei BioL 129. in press, 1988. 

Bader, D. M. (with Zhang, Y. and Shafiq, S. A. ), Detection of a ventricular myosin heavy chain throughout 
cardiac myogenesis in the chicken heart./ Cell BioL 102:1480- 1484, 1986. 

Bader, D. M. (with Zadeh, B. J., Gonzalez-Sanchez, A. and Fischman, D. A.), Myosin heavy chain expression 
in embryonic cardiac cell cultures. Derel BioL 115:204-214, 1986. 

Bedford, J. M. (with Esponda, P), The influence of body temperature and castration on the protein composi- 
tion of fluid in the rat cauda epididymis./ Reprod. FertiL 78:505-5 14, 1986. 

Bedford, J. M. (with Schoysman, R.J. ). The role of the human epididymis in sperm maturation and sperm 
storage as reflected in the consequences of epididymovasostomy Fertility & Sterility 46:293-299, 
1987 

Biedler,J. L. ( with Jongsma, A. P M., Spengler. B. A., Van der Bliek, A. M., and Borst, P). Clhromosomal locali- 
zation of three genes coamplifled in the multidrug-resistant CH^CS Chinese hamster ovary cell line. 
CancerRes. 47:2875-28^8, 1987 

Biedler,J. L. ( with Meyers, M. B., Schneider, K. A., Spengler, B. A. and Chang, T.-d ). Sorcin (V19), a soluble 
acidic calcium binding protein ov erproduced in multidrug-resistant cells. Identification of the pro- 
tein by anti-sorcin antibody Biochetn. Pharnuicol. 36:23~'3-238(), 1987 

Brown, A. M. C. (with Wildin, R. A., Prendcrgast, T.J. and Varmus, H. E.), A retrovirus vector expressing the 
putative mammary oncogene int- 1 causes partial transformation of a mammary epithelial cell line. 
Cell 46: 1001 - 1009, 1986. 

Brown, A. M. C. (with Papkoft, J., Fung, T, Shackleford, (i. M. and Varmus, H. E. ). Identification of pro- 
tein products encoded by the proto-oncogene itit-X. MoL Cell BioL "':39^1 -39"^7 1987 

Chaganti, R. S. K., (cytogenetics of leukemia and lymphoma, in Malignant Lymphoma (C W. Bernard and R. 
D. Dorfman, R. D., eds) Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 184-203, 1987 

Chaganti, R. S. K. (with Shaham, M., Adier, B., and (ianguly, S. ). Transfection of normal human and Chinese 
hamster DNA corrects diepoxybutane-induced chromosomal hypersensitivity of Fanconi anemia fi- 
brt)blasts. Proc NatL AccuL Sci USA 8-4:5853-5857 1987 

Chao, M. V. (with Johnson, D., l^nahan. A., Buck, C. R., Seghal, A., Mercer, E. and Bothwell, M. ), Expression 
and structure of the human N(iF receptor Cell 47:545-554, 1986. 

Chao, Moses V. (with Buck, C. R., Martinez, H. and Black, I. B. ), Developmentally regulated expression of the 
nerve growth factor receptor gene in the periphery and brain. Proc. NatL Acad. Sci. (I.S.A 84:3060- 
3063, 1987 

Darzynkiewicz, Z. (with Kapuscinski, J., Carter, S. P, Schmid, E and Melamed, M. R. ), Cytostatic and cyto- 
toxic properties of pyronin Y. Relation to mitochondrial localization of the dye and its interaction 
with RNA. CancerRes. 46 5760- 5766, 1986. 

Darzynkeiwicz, Z. (with Charter, S. P and Old, L J. ), Effect of recombinant tumor necrosis factor on HL-60 
cells. Cell cycle specificity and synergism with actinomycin D.J. Cell PhysioL 130:328—335, 1987 

Donner, D. B. (with Pfeffer, L. M., and Stebbing, N. ). Cytoskeletal association of human -interferon-receptor 
complexes in interferon-sensitive and -resistant lymphoblastoid cells. Proc. NatL Acad. Sci U.S.A 
84:3249-3253, 1987 

Donner, D. B. (with Yamada, K. and Lipson, K. E. ). Structure and proteolysis of the growth hormone recep- 
tor on rat hepatocytes. Biochemistry 26:4438-4443, 1987 

Eisinger, M. (with Ogata, S. and Furuhasi, Y. ). Growth stimulation of human melanocytes: Identification and 
characterization of melanoma-derived melanocyte growth factor (M-McGf). Biochem. Biophys. Res 
Comm. 146:1204-1211, 1987 

Eisinger, M., Sadan, S., Silver, 1. A. and Flick, R. B. Growth regulation of skin cells by epidermal cell-derived 
factors: Implications for wound healing. Proc NatL Acad. Sci US A 85: 1937- 194 1, 1988. 

Fischman, D. A. (with Saad, A. D. and Pardee, J. D.) Dynamic exchange of myosin molecules between thick 
filaments. Proc NatL Acad. Sci USA 83:9483-9487 1987 



15 



Fischman, D. A. (with Saad, A. D. and Obinata, T. ) Immunochemical analysis of protein isoforms in thick my- 
ofilaments of regenerating skeletal muscle. Devel. Biol. 119:336-349, 1987. 

German, J. L. (with Louie, E. and Banerjee, D. ), The heat shock response in vivo: Experimental induction 
during mammalian organogenesis. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, ami Mutagenesis 562, 
1986. 

German, J. L. (with Chan, J. Y. H., Becker, F F and Ray, J. H. ), Altered DNA ligase activities in Bloom's syn- 
drome. Nature 325:357-359, 1987 

Gershengorn, M. C. (with Imai, A. ), Independent phosphatidylinositol synthesis in pituitary plasma mem- 
brane and endoplasmic reticulum. Nature (Land. ) 325:726, 1987. 

Gershengorn, M. C. (with Oron, Y, Straub, R. E. and Traktman, P). Decreased TRH receptor mRNA activity 
precedes homologous downregulation: assay in oocytes. Science 238:1406, 1987. 

Jaffe, E. A. (with Bornmann, B.-J., Huang, C.-K. and Lam, G. F ), Thrombin-induced vimentin phosphorylation 
in cultured human endothelial cells./. Biol. Chem. 261:10471-10474, 1986. 

Jaffe, E. A. (with Grulich, J., Weksler, B. B., Hampel, G. and Watanabe, K. ), Correlation between thrombin- 
induced prostacyclin production and inositol trisphosphate and cytosolic free calcium in cultured 
human endothelial cells./ Biol Chem. 262:8557-8565, 1987 

Klein, I. (with Hong, C. ), Effects of thyoid hormone on the myosin content and myosin isoenzymes of the 
heterotopically transplanted heart./. Clin. Invest., 77:1694-1698, 1986. 

Kourides, 1. A. (with Dracopoli, N. C, Rettig, W. J., Whitfield, G. K., Darlington, G. J., Spengler, B. A., Biedler, 
J. L. and Old, L. J. ), Assignment of the gene for the beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone to 
the short arm of human chromosome. Proc. Natl Acad. Set. U.SA 83:1822- 1826, 1986. 

Kourides, I. A. (with Wolf, O. and Gurr, J. A. ). Expression of the gene for the sub-unit of mouse thryotropin 
results in multiple mRNAs differing in their 5 ' untranslated regions./. Biol Chem. 262:16596- 
16603, 1987 

Marks, P A. (with Sheffery M. and Rifkind, R. A. ). Induction of transformed cells to terminal differentiation 
and the modulation of gene expression. Cancer Res 47:659-666. 1986. 

Marks, P A. (with Ramsay R. G., Ikeda, K. and Rifkind, R. A. ) Changes in gene expression associated with in- 
duced differentiation of erythroleukemia: proto-oncogenes, globin genes and cell division. Proc. 
Natl. Acad. Sci USA 83:6849-6853, 1986. 

Moore, M. A. S. (with Warren, D.J. ) Interleukin- 1 and G-C>SF synergism: in vivo stimulation of stem cell re- 
covery and hematopoietic regeneration following 5-fluorouracil treatment in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. 
Sci USA 84:7134-7138, 1988. 

Moore, M. A. S. (with Warren, D.J. ) Synergism among Interleukin 1, lnterleukin-3, and Interleukin-5 in the 
production of eosinophils from primitive hemepoietic stem cells./. Immunol 140:94—99, 1988. 

Nachman, R. L. (with Knudsen, B. S. and Harpel, P H. ), Plasminogen activator inhibitor is associated with 
the extracellular matrix of cultured bovine smooth muscle cells./. Clin. Invest 80:1082- 1089, 
1987 

Nachman, R. L. (with Silverstein, R. L. ), Thrombospondin binds to monocytes-macrophages and mediates 
platelet monocyte adhesion./. Clin. Invest 79:867-874, 1987 

Nathan, C. F (with Gabay J. E., Heiple, J. M. and C^ohn, Z. A. ), Subcellular location and properties of bacteri- 
cidal factors from human neutrophils./. Exp. Med. 164:1407- 1421, 1986. 

Nathan, C:. Neutrophil activation on biological surfaces: Massive release of hydrogen peroxide in response 
to products of macrophages and lymphocytes./. Clin. Invest 80:1550-1560, 1987 

Pardee, J. D. (with Saad, A. D. and Fischman, D. A. ), Fluorescence energy transfer studies of myosin thick 
filament assembly BiophysJ. 49:140-142, 1986. 

Pardee, J. D. (with Saad, A. D. and Fischman, D. A. ), Dynamic exchange of myosin molecules between thick 
filaments. Proc Natl Acad. Sci USA 83:9483-9487 1986. 

Pelus, L. M. (with Ottmann, (). and Nocka, K. ), Synergistic inhibition of human marrow granulocyte-macro- 
phage progenitor cells by prostaglandin E and recombinant interferon-alpha, -beta, and -gamma and 
an effect mediated by tumor necrosis factor./ Immunol. 140:479-484, 1988. 

Pelus, L. M. (with Gentile, P), In vivo modulation of myelopoiesis by prostaglandin E2. III. Induction of sup- 
pressor cells in marrow and spleen capable of mediating inhibition of C>FU-GM proliferation. Blood 
(in press). 



16 



Rifkind, R. A. (with Marks. P A. and colleagues). Protein kinase C activity and hexamethylene bisacetamide- 
induced erythroleukemia cell differentiation. Proc. .\(itl. Acad. Sci. C.S.A 8-4:5282-5286. 198": 

Rifkind. R. A. (with Russo. P and Marks, P A. ), Induced differentiation of human urinary bladder carcinoma, 
in The Status of Differentiation Therapy of Cancer, ed. S. Waxman, Ci. B. Rossi and E Takaku. Serono 
Symposia Publications, Raven Press. Vol. 4 5, pp. 253-. ^60, 1988. 

Rodriguez-Boulan, E. (with \'ega-Salas, D. E., Salas. P J. I. and Gundersen. D. ), Apical and basolateral markers 
polarize with different kinetics in MD(^K ( epithelial ) cells: role of the substrate and intercellular 
contacts./ Cell. Biol. 104:905-916, 198^. 

Rcxlriguez-Boulan, E. ( with \ ega-.Salas. D. E. and Salas. P J. 1 ). Modulation of the expression of an apical 

plasma membrane protein of Madin Darby (Canine Kidney epithelial cells: (lell-cell interaction con- 
trol the appearance of a novel intracellular storage compartment./ Cell Biol 104:1249- 1260. 198". 

Saad. A. D. (with Pardee, J. D. and Fischman. D. A. ). Dynamic exchange of myosin molecules between thick 
filaments. Proc Sati Aaui. Sci l .SA 83:9483-948-. 1986. 

Saad. A. D. (with Obinata. T. and Fi.schman, D. A. ). Immunochemical analysis of protein isofbrms in thick 
myofilamentsof regenerating skeletal muscle. Dt'/f/. fi/o/. 119:3.36-349, 198"! 

Siniscalco, M. (with Casanova, M., Leroy P, Boucekine, C >Xeis.senbach, J., Bishop. C. Fellous. M.. Purrello, 
M. and Fiori, Ci. ). A human ^ -linked DNA polymorphism and its potential for estimating genetic and 
evolutionary distances. Science 230:l4()3- 1406. 1986. 

Sonenberg. M. ( with Corin. R. E.. Ha.spel, H. C . Pertez. A. M. and Rifkind. R. A. ). Antagonistic effect of butyr 
ate on hexamethylene bisacetamidc induced differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells. Can- 
cer Res. 46:1136-1141. 1986. 

Sonenberg, M. (with Gulicr, S., Corin, R. C., Mynarcik, D. (]. and London, B. M. ), Role of insulin in growth 
hormone stimulated 3T3 cell adipogenesis. Endocrinology 122:2084-2089. 1988. 

Staiano-Coico, L (with Kimmel, M. and Darzynkiewicz, Z. ). Stathmokinetic analysis of human epidermal 
cells in vitro. Cell Tissue Kinet 19:289-304, 1986 

Staiano-Coico. L. (with Higgins. PJ.. Darzynkiewicz. Z., Kimmel Nl.. Gottlieb. A. B.. Pagan-Clharry. 1.. Mad- 
den. M. R.. Finkelstein, j. L. and Hefton. J. M. ). Human keratinocyte culture. Identification and staging 
of epidermal cell subpopulations./. Clin. Imx'st. "^"^:.396-404, 1986. 

Szabo. P ( with Chua, S. C:., Vitek, A., (irzeschik. K.-H.. John, M. and White, P C. ) Cloning of cDNA encoding 
human steroid llB-hydroxylase (P450cll ). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:7193-7197 1987 

Szabo, P ( with Mc(,affrey T. A., Nicholson, A. C. \Xeksler. M. E. and VC'eksler B. B. ). Aging and arterioscle- 
rosis: the increased proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells isolated from old rat is associated 
w ith increased PDGF-like activit>./ Exp. Med 16^:163- n4, 1988. 

Teintze, M. (with Inouye. M. and Inouye, S. ), Characterization of calcium-binding sites in development-spe- 
cific Protein S oi Myxococciis xanthns using site-specific mutagenesis./. Biol. Chetyi. 263:1199— 
1203, 1988. 

Traktman, P (with Evans, E. ). Molecular genetic analysis of a vaccinia gene with an essential role in DNA 
replication./ Wroto^ 61:3152-3162, 1987 

Traktman, P ( with Shaffer, R. ). Vaccinia virus encapsidates a novel topoisomerase with the properties of a 
eucaryotic fv pe I enzyme./ Biol Chetn. 262:9309-9315, 1987 

Wall, D. A. (with Patel. S. ). Multivesicular bodies play a key role in viteUogenin endocytosis by Xenopns 
oocytes. Dpt Wop. fi/b/. 119: 2 ■'5 -289, 198". 

Wall, D. A. (with Patel, S. ). The intracellular fate of vitellogenin in Xenopns oocytes is determined by its ex- 
tracellular concentration during endoyctosis./. B/b/. Chetn. 262: 14 "'"'9- 14787 1987 

White, Perrin C. (with New, M. I. and Dupont, B. ) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. A^. Engl. J. Med. 
316:1519-1524,1987 

White, P C. (with Amor, M.. Parker, K. L, Globerman. H. and New. M. I. ) Mutation in the CYP2 IB gene ( lle- 
172 to Asn) causes steroid 2 1 -hydroxylase deficiencv Proc. \atl Acad. Sci i .S.A 85:1600- 1604. 
1988. 

Zakim, D. (with Noy, N. and Donnelly T. M. ), Physical-chemical model for entry of water-insoluble com- 
pounds into cells. Biochemistry 25:2013-2021, 1986. 

Zakim, D. (with Jain, M. ), Spontaneous insertion of proteins into preformed membranes. Biochetyi. Biophys. 
Ac?fl 906:33-68, 1987 



17 



Immunology 



Faculty 



Anthony P Albino 
Carl G. Becker 
Edward A. Boyse 
Nicholas Chiorazzi 
Bo Dupont 
Neal Flomenberg 
Ulrich Hammerling 
Michael K. Hoffmann 
Alan Houghton 
Robert W. Knowles 
Janet Lee 
Kenneth O. Llovd 



Carl Nathan 
Herbert F. Oettgen 
Lloyd J. Old 
Richard J. O'Reilly 
David N. Posnett 
Wolfgang Rettig 
Constance D. Rothermel 
Gregory W. Siskind 
Kurt H. Stenzel 
Osias Stutman 
Marc E. Weksler 
Soo Young Yang 



Research Activities 

The main interests of the Immunology faculty are focused on the complex molecular 
and cellular mechanisms responsible for the development and regulation of the im- 
mune system. Research programs can be grouped into three main areas: 1 ) immuno- 
genetics of cell surface molecules involved in the differentiation and function of nor- 
mal and malignant lymphoid cells; 2 ) cellular immunology' of the interactions 
betw een cells and their secreted products, and 3 ) tumor immunology^ of the trans- 
formed tumor cell and its host, aimed at designing possible diagnostic and therapeu- 
tic strategies. Research in all three areas involves studies using both animal models 
and human cells. Immunology' is multidisciplinary in its approaches and has gener- 
ated its own methodology ( such as the production of monoclonal antibodies, and the 
continuous in vitro growth and cloning of lymphoid cells), in addition to using the 
methods of other disciplines, including biochemistry and molecular biology. For ex- 
ample, the analysis of the biological significance of a given lymphoid cell surface anti- 
gen is not only studied using classical genetics and in functional assays using mono- 
clonal antibodies, but also by isolating the molecule and defining its structure using 
biochemical techniques and characterizing its gene with the tools of molecular biol- 
ogy. Thus, the general approach of the research program is to define immunological 
events at the biological, biochemical and molecular levels. 

In the field of tumor immunology. Dr. Albino's laboratory is examining the role 
of specific oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. This includes a 
comprehensive study of the steps required for the transformation of human melano- 
cytes and nevocytes. In addition, this laboratory also studies the structure and func- 
tion of melanoma cell-surface differentiation proteins and their gene sequences. 

Dr Becker s current research interests concern the effects of tobacco constitu- 
ents on the immune system and related mediator pathways and how these may con- 
tribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. 



18 



Dr Bqyse's laboratory focuses on the description and understanding of genetic 
programs that specify the unique molecular constitution (surface phenoty pe) of the 
outer membrane of cells according to their developmental lineage and stage of 
differentiation. 

Dr Chiorazzfs laboratory is investigating the mechanisms and cellular interac- 
tions involved in B lymphocyte activation and differentiation to antibody secreting 
cells. Studies of selected lymphoid cell surface receptors and their ligands are integral 
components of these analyses. Monoclonal populations of lymphoid cells, derived by 
either Epstein-Barr virus transformation or somatic cell hybridization, are frequently 
employed in this approach. Structural and functional studies of antibodies produced 
in certain autoimmune disorders have provided basic clues to the relationship be- 
tween normal and disease states. Autoimmune and allergic disorders as well as the 
chronic lymphoid malignancies are this laboratory's clinical interests. 

The central themes for Dr. Dupont s laboratory are the characterization of the 
genetic composition of the genes of the human major histocompatibilirv' complex 
(MHC); the investigation of the molecular genetic basis for the expression of these ex- 
tensive genetic polymorphisms of the MHC-encoded cell surface antigens as detected 
in the population; and the biological role of MHC gene products in immunoregulation 
and other biological functions. The laboratory is also involved in investigations in the 
area of transplantation immunology; particularly in relation to the understanding of 
mechanisms responsible for graft vs. host disease. 

Investigations in Dr Fionienherg s laboratory focus primarily on the activation 
and effector functions of human lymphocytes. A large portion of this work concerns 
the molecular interactions between the T cell and its target, focusing on the major 
histocompatibility complex gene products that initially activate or serve as targets for 
T cells, as well as the T cell surface molecules that are important for T cell function. 
Additional studies of autoreactive T cells, natural killer cells, and the molecular genet- 
ics of B cell differentiation are in progress. 

For the mouse, the majority' of genes encoding lymphocyte antigens are orga- 
nized in distinct multigene families positioned on several chromosomes. Study of 
these gene clusters continues to be the major theme of Dr H dm tner ling's efforts. The 
immunogenetics of murine and human lymphoid and hemopoietic cell surface anti- 
gens using monoclonal antibodies is another area of Dr Hammerling's studies, with 
special emphasis on their role in T cell activation. 

The main interest of Dr Hoffmann's studies is the analysis of the direct and fac- 
tor-mediated cellular interactions in the human and murine antibody responses in 
vitro. 

Dr Houghton's research program to investigate the pathogenesis and treatment 
of malignant melanoma arises from his interest in the biolog\' of human solid tumors. 
Dr. Houghton views malignant melanoma as a paradigm for the pathogenesis of hu- 
man cancer. His studies involve the phenot\pic and genot\pic expression of antigens 
related to differentiation and transformation of melanocytes. 

Dr Knowles' laboratory has developed monoclonal antibodies that provide an 
extensive panel of unique probes to examine cell surface molecules and their func- 
tional epitopes. These have been used in the biochemical and genetic characteriza- 
tion of the human histocompatibility antigens and the differentiation antigens of the 
human T cell, B cell and NK cell lineages. Defective expression of HLA class II genes 
and recombination events within the class II region are also being investigated at the 
genomic level. 



19 



The molecular genetics of the human major histocompatibility' complex or HLA 
genes is the major area of study of Dr. Lee s laboratory. Her goals are to identif>^ and 
characterize genes and their products that govern the tissue specific expression of 
class II genes. These studies involve the analysis of defects in expression of mutant 
cell lines derived from immunodeficiency patients. In addition, the laboratory is in- 
vestigating regulatory polymorphisms associated with different alleles. 

Investigations of the glycoproteins and glycolipids of human tumor cells and nor- 
mal cells are the focus of research in Dr. Lloy^d's laboratory. Particular emphasis has 
been placed on the biochemical identification and characterization of these 
components. 

Dr Nathan's efforts are aimed at understanding how phagocytic leukocytes kill 
microbes, tumor cells, and normal host elements at inflammatory sites. Investigations 
into the biochemical bases of cytoxicity by macrophages and granulocytes are inte- 
grated into a context of cell biology and clinical investigation. 

The main effort in Dr Oettgen's laboratory is on the serological analysis of hu- 
man cancer antigens, the human and cellular immune responses to human cancer, 
and the development and application of human cancer therapies using cancer anti- 
gens, immunogenic cancer vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. 

Dr Old's research is concerned with the development of two new approaches 
to cancer therapy: tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and monoclonal antibodies directed 
against surface determinants on malignant cells. The latter is part of a general effort to 
analyze the cell surface of human and murine tumors, with the aim to characterize 
the important surface molecules, mostly with monoclonal antibodies and other sero- 
logical procedures. 

Dr Posnetfs laboratory is interested in basic problems of immunology. The ap- 
proach is primarily molecular The topics under study include the human T cell anti- 
gen receptor and several lymphocyte membrane molecules that may serve as lympho- 
kine receptors. In the former case he is interested in understanding the process of 
antigen/MHC recognition by T cells. Studies are focusing on T cell antigen receptor V 
gene usage and its relationship with antigen/MHC reactivity. Also of interest are dis- 
ease associations with the T cell antigen receptor genes. He is also cloning the genes 
of several putative lymphokine receptors. These studies are aimed at understanding 
the function of these membrane activation antigens. 

The principal objective otDr O'Reillys Bone Marrow Transplantation Program is 
the development and improvement of transplantation approaches for the treatment of 
lethal disorders of the blood system through an integrated program of clinical and 
basic research in immunology, hematology, genetics, and transplantation biology. 

The main objective of Dr Rettig's research is to define the rules and molecular 
mechanisms by which intrinsic genetic differentiation programs, extrinsic differentia- 
tion signals, and malignant transformation are integrated in specific cell types to gen- 
erate the complex cell-surface patterns seen in human tumors. 

Dr RothermeVs laboratory is investigating the induction of cytokines by the intra- 
cellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia. Current work focuses on the requirements 
for induction of interleukins 1 and 2 and gamma interferon, and the role of interleukin 
1 in the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease. 

Dr Siskind is concerned with factors regulating the immune response. In partic- 
ular, he is studying ( 1 ) the role of idiotype anti idiotype interactions in determining 
clonal expression and ( 2 ) the role of T cells bearing receptors for the Fc of IgD in reg- 
ulating the magnitude of the immune response. 



20 



Dr. StenzeVs studies have focused on biochemical mechanisms of lymphocyte ac- 
tivation, transplantation immunology and the role of cell mediated cytotoxicity in the 
control of cancer growth. The latter studies include both basic and clinical investiga- 
tion of adoptive immunotherapy in renal adenocarcinoma. 

The development, maintenance and functions of T cells in mice has been one of 
the main areas of Dr. Stutman's research. Another area of interest is the study of the 
immunological components of the tumor-host interaction. These studies include the 
definition of tumor-specific responses; examination of the role of such responses in 
affecting tumor development and behavior, and the production of specific and non- 
specific cytotoxic cells that can kill tumor cells, by production of TNF and other lytic 
molecules. 

Dr Weksler's research concerns two areas: ( 1 ) The biology of autoreactive T lym- 
phocytes and ( 2 ) the immunobiolog>' of aging. The former studies are aimed at under- 
standing the development and regulation of the immune system; the latter at under- 
standing the biological processes that lead to the diseases of aging. 

Dr Yang is involved in studies of T- lymphocyte activation, lymphokine produc- 
tion and regulation, T-lymphocyte macrophage interactions, and characterization of 
T-lymphocyte differentiation antigens and their functions, as well as the gene organi- 
zation and regulation of gene expression in the Class I MHC genetic region in 
humans. 



Recent Publications 

Albino, A. H ( with Houghton, A. N., Eisingcr, M., LecJ. S., Kantor, R. R. S., OliflF, A. I., and Old, L. J ), Class II 
histocompatibility antigen expression in human melanocytes transformed by Ha-MSV and Ki-MSV 
retroviruses./ £.Y/;.Mc-i/. 164:1710-1722, 1986. 

Albino, A. R (with Kantor, R. R. S., Mattes, M. J., Lloyd, K. O., Old, L.J. ), Biochemical analysis of two cell sur- 
face glycoprotein complexes, very common antigen I and very common antigen 11./ Biol. Chem. 
262:15158-15165, 1987 

Becker, C. G. (with Francus, T, Klein, R. E, Staiano-(!oico, L., and Siskind, (i. W. ), Effects of tobacco glycopro- 
tein (TGP) on the immune system. II. TCiP stimulates the proliferation of human T cells and the dif- 
ferentiation of human B cells into immunoglobulin secreting cells./. Immimology, 140, 1988. 

Becker, C. G. (with Francus, T, Francus, Y., Weksler, M. E. ), Effects of tobacco glycoprotein ( TGP ) on the im- 
mune system. 111. The effect of aging on the mitogenic response of human peripheral blood lympho- 
cytes to TGP Cellular /mmimolog}'. 105: 1 -8, 1987 

Boyse, E. A. (with Matsuura, A., Shen, E W., Fisher, D. A., Hood, L. ), Transcripts of Tla genes. Immunogenet- 
25:411-415, 1987 

Boyse, E. A. (with Saga, Y, Tung, J. S., Shen, E W.), Alternative use of 5' exons in the specification of Ly-5 iso- 
forms distinguishing hematopoietic cell lineages. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84:5364-5368, 1987 

Chiorazzi, N. (Reeves, W. R. ), Description and partial characterization of a nucleolar RNA-associated autoan- 
tigen defined by a human monoclonal antibody/. Exp. Med. 165:1172- 1187, 1987 

Chiorazzi, N. (with Stohl, W. and Posnett, D. N. ), Induction of T cell-dependent B cell differentiation by anti- 
CD3 monoclonal antibodies. //mwf/«o/ 138:1667-1673, 1987 

Dupont, B. (with Zemmour, J., Ennis, P D., Parham, P), Comparison of the structure of HLA-Bw47 to HLA- 
B13 and its relationship to 2 1 -hydroxylase deficiency /mmunogenetics, 27:2H I -287, 1988. 

Dupont, B. (with Trapani, J. A., Klein, J. L, and White, P C. ), Molecular cloning of an inducible serine ester- 
ase gene from human cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S. A (in press). 

Flomenberg, N. (with Rosenkrantz, K., Dupont, B. and Williams, D. ), Autocytotoxic and autosuppressor T 
cell lines generated from autologous lymphocyte cultures. Human Immunol 19:189—203, 1987 



21 



Flomenberg, N. (with Rosenkrantz, K., and Dupont, B. ), Relevance of autocytotoxic and autoregulatory 

lymphocytes in the maintenance of self-tolerance. In: Concepts in Immunopathology Vol. 4, Eds. J. 
M. Cruse, R. E. Lewis, Jr. Basel: Karger, pp. 24-41, 1987. 

Hammerling, U. (with LeClair, K. R, Palfree, R. G. E., Flood, R M., and Bothwell, A. ), Isolation of murine Ly- 
6E cDNA reveals a new multigene family EMEO J. 5:3227-3234, 1986. 

Hammerling, U. (with Toulon, M., Chun, M., Ralfree, S., Hoffmann, M. K. ), Bidirectionalirv' of mixed lympho- 
cyte stimulation (Mis response ). Effects of M Is^ stimulator cells on M Is^ helper cells./. Immunol. 
140:2543-2548, 1988. 

Hoffmann, M. K. (with Gilbert, K., Hirst, J. and Scheid, M. ), An essential role for IL-1 and a dual function for 
IL-2 in the immune response of murine B lymphocytes to sheep erythrocytes./ Mol Cell Immu- 
nol. 3:29-32, 1987 

Hoffinann, M. K. The requirement for high intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations distinguishes two path- 
ways of B cell activation induced with lymphokines and antibody to immunoglobulin./. Immunol 
140:580-582, 1988. 

Houghton, A. N. (with Cordon-Cardo, C, and Eisinger, ]V1. ), Differentiation antigens of melanocytes and mel- 
anoma. Int. Rev Exp. Path. 28:2 17- 247 1986. 

Houghton, A. N. (with Real, R. X., Davis, L. J., Cordon-Cardo, C, Old, L.J. ), Phenotypic heterogeneity of mel- 
anoma: Relation to the differentiation program of melanoma cells./. Exp. Med. 167:812-829, 1987 

Knowles, R. W. (with Llggla, C. K., Jondal, M., Kaplan, D., Flomenberg, N. ), Enhancement of natural killer cell 
activity- by unique antibodies within the CD2 (sheep-RBC-receptor) and CD 16 ( Fc-receptor ) clus- 
ters. In: Leucocyte Typing III — White Cell Differentiation Antigens, Ed. A. McMichael. Oxford: Ox- 
ford UniversitA- Press, 134- 137 1987 

Knowles, R. >X'. (with Sutton, V. R. ) Mapping of a restriction fragment length polymorphism associated with 
defective DR B4 chain expression to the HLA-DRBl gene. Human Immunol, in press, 1988. 

Lee, J. S. (with O'Neill, L. ), Methylation of the HLA-DR alpha gene is positively correlated with expression. 
Immunogenetics, 26:92-98, 1987 

Lee, J. S. (with Hume, C. R., Accolla, R. S. ), Defective HLA class II expression in a regulatory mutant is par- 
tially complemented by activated ras oncogenes. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 84:8603-8607, 198";^ 

Lloyd, K. O. (with Mattes, M. J., Real, E X., Furukawa, K.. Old, L.J. ), Class I (unique) tumor antigens of human 
melanoma: partial purification and characterization of the FD antigen and anah sis of a mouse poly- 
clonal antiserum. Cancer Res. 47:6614-6619, 1987 

Lloyd, K. O. (with Tai, T, Kawashima, I., Furukawa, K.), Monoclonal antibody R24 distinguishes between dif- 
ferent N-acetyl-and N-glycolylneuraminic acid derivatives of ganglioside GD3. Arch. ofBiochem. 
and Biophys. 260:5 i - 55, 1988. 

Nathan, C. E (with Gabay, J. E., Heiple, J. M. and Cohn, Z. A. ), Subcellular location and properties of bacteri- 
cidal factors from human neutrophils./. Exp. Med. 164:1407— 1421, 1986. 

Nathan, C. Neutrophil activation on biological surfaces: Massive release of hydrogen peroxide in response 
to products of macrophages and lymphocytes./. Clin. Invest ^0:\5'^0- 1560, 1987 

Oettgen, H. E (with Livingston, R O., Natoli, E. J., Calves, M. J.. Stockert, E., and Old, L. J.), Vaccines contain- 
ing purified GM2 ganglioside elicit DM2 antibodies in melanoma patients. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci 
USA 84:2911-2915, 1987 

Oettgen, H. F (with Yamaguchi, H., Furukawa, K., Fortunato, S. R., Lloyd, K. L. and Old, L.J.), Cell-surface an- 
tigens of melanoma recognized by human monoclonal antibodies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 
84:2416-2420,1987 

Old, L.J. (with C:hen, Y. T, Obata, Y, Stockert, E., Takahashi, T. ), Tla-region genes and their products. Im- 
munol Res. 6:30-45, 1987 

Old, L.J. (with Srivastava, P K., Chen, Y. T. ), 5 -Structural analysis of genes encoding polymorphic antigens 
of chemically induced tumors. Proc Natl Acad. Sci USA 84:3807-3811, 1987 

O'Reilly R. (with Kernan, N. A. Bordignon, C, Keever, C. A., Cunningham, L, Castro-Malaspina, H., Collins, 
T. N., Brochstein, J., Emanuel, D., Lever, J., Shank, B., Berns, J., Fk)menberg, N., Gulati, S., Dupont, B. ). 
Graft-failures following T cell depleted marrow transplants for leukemia. (Clinical and in vitro char- 
acteristics. Transplant Proc Vol. XIX 29-32, 1987 

O'Reilly J. Current developments in marrow transplantation. Transplant Proc. Vol. XIX:92- 102, 1987 



22 



Posnett, D. N. (with Chang, Yi Wang, and Friedman, S. M. ). Inherited polymorphism of the human T cell an- 
tigen receptor detected by a monoclonal antibody. Proc. Natl. Acad. Set. U.S. A 83. 7888— 7892, 
1986. 

Posnett, D. N., Li Y, Szabo, P Molecular genotypes of the human T cell receptor gamma chain./ Immu- 
nol. 140: 1300- 1303, 1988. 

Rettig, W.J. (with Real, E X., Spengler B. A., Biedler, J. L., Old, L.J. ), Human melanoma proteoglycan: Expres- 
sion in hybrids controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Science. 231:1281 - 1284, 1986. 

Rettig, W.J. (with Spengler, B. A., Garin Chesa, P, Old, L. J., Biedler, J. L. ), Coordinate changes in neuronal 
phenotype and surface antigen expression in human neuroblastoma cell variants. Cancer Res. 
47:1383-1389, 1987 

Rothermel, C. D. (with Rubin, B. Y, Jaffe, E. A., and Murray H. W. ), Oxygen-independent inhibition of intra- 
cellular Chlamydia psittaci growth by human monocytes and 7- interferon-activated macrophages. 
J. Immunol 137:689-692, 1986. 

Rothermel, C D., Chlamydia and human monocytes: relationship between parasite growth and host cell 
differentiation. In. Chlamydial Infections. Ed. by D. Oriel, G. Ridgway J. Schachter, D. Taylor-Robin- 
son, and M. Ward. (Cambridge I'niversity Press, pp. 43"^-440, 1986. 

Siskind, G. W. (with Coico, R. F, Finkelman, E, Swenson, C. D. and Thorbecke, G.J. ), Exposure to cross- 
linked Igl) induces receptors for IgD on T cells in vivo and in intra. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 
85:559-563. 1988. 

Siskind, G. W. (with Tsuda, T., Kim, Young T. and Weksler, M. E. ), Old mice recover the ability to produce 
IgG and high-avidity antibody following irradiation with partial bone marrow shielding. Proc. Natl 
Acad. Sci U.S.A. 85:1169-ir3, 1988. 

Stenzel, K. H. (with Nordenberg, J., Wasserman, L.. Beery E., Akmi. D.. Malik, H., and Novogrodsky, A.), 

Growth inhibition of murine melanoma cells by butyric acid and dimethylsulfoxide. Exp. Cell Res. 
162:77, 1986. 

Stenzel, K. (with Wang, J., Suthanthiran, M., Walle, A., legman, M., Schwartz,, R., Murthi, V, and Novogrod- 
sky, A. ) Anti-tumor properties of lymphocytes activated by the oxidizing mitogens./ Immunol 136: 
4735, 1986. 

Stutman, O., Postthymic T cell devek)pment. Immunol Rev. 91:159- 194, 1986. 

Stutman, O. (with Macphail, S. ), Lyt4 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for Class I H-2 antigens are acti- 
vated in primary mixed lymphocyte reactions./. Immunol 139:4007-4015, 1987 

Weksler, M. E. (with Dutkowski, R. T, Lesh, R., Staiano-Coico, L., Thaler, H., and Darlington, G.J. ), Increased 
chromosomal instability in lymphocytes from elderly humans. Mutation Res 149:505, 1985. 

Weksler, M. E. (with Kozak, R. W, Kozak, E. M., and Schwab, R. ), Lymphocyte proliferation induced by au- 
tologous cells, XV. Relationships between the human autok)gous mixed lymphocyte reaction stimu- 
lated by non-T and activated T cells. Human Immun. 14:35 1, 1985. 

Yang, S. Y. (with Kosinski, S., Hammerling, IJ. ), Human monock)nal antibody to an HIj\-DRw53 (MT-like) ep- 
itope on Class II antigens. Tissue Antigen 28: 150- 162, 1986. 

Yang, S. Y. (with Chouaib, S., and Dupont, B. ), A common pathway for T lymphocyte activatk)n involving 
both the CD3-Ti complex and CD2 sheep erythrocyte receptor determinants./. Immunol 137: 
1097-1100,1986. 



23 



Molecular Biology 



Faculty 




Francis Barany 


Elizabeth H. Lacy 


Kenneth Berns 


Monika Lusky 


Peter Besmer 


Arthur Lustig 


Anthony Brown 


Kenneth J. Marians 


Moses V Chao 


Norma Neff 


Robert DeLotto 


Michael E. O'Donnell 


Dale Dorsett 


Mary Ann Osley 


Erik Falck-Pedersen 


Samuel Rabkin 


Eli Gilboa 


Jeffery V. Ravetch 


William S. Hayward 


Ora M. Rosen 


William HoUoman 


Michael B. Sheffery 


Jerard Hurwitz 


Stewart Shuman 


Joseph Jack 


Paula Traktman 


Robert M. Krug 





Research Activities 

Several of the Programs of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences jointly offer an in- 
terdisciplinary program of graduate research training in the structure, function and 
regulation of genetic elements; including control of normal gene expression, gene re- 
placement, oncogenes and oncogene expression, oncogenic viruses, chromosome 
structure, nucleic acid replication, recombination and repair, mechanisms of cell de- 
termination, growth factors and their receptors and human gene therapy. 

In the laboratories, the control of gene expression is studied in a variety of viral 
and cellular systems, in cell-free systems, in cell culture, and in the intact organism. 
Influenza virus, vaccinia virus, and adenovirus as well as cellular systems serve as 
models for the control mechanisms involved in the synthesis, processing and transla- 
tion of RNA, both in the cell and in cell-free systems. Various eukaryotic virus expres- 
sion vectors are being constructed for these studies. The use of human retroviruses 
for human gene replacement therapy is also under development. Virus-infected cells 
are also being employed for molecular studies of interferon action. Cells responsive to 
specific inducing agents are used to elucidate the regulation of gene transcription by 
peptide hormones, by interferon, and by chromatin structure. The gene amplification 
or rearrangement events frequently observed in tumor cells reveal the profound ef- 
fects of such DNA alterations on gene transcription. Mice carrying new genes intro- 
duced by injection of DNA into early embryos provide novel examples of tissue-spe- 
cific control of gene expression. 

Research of the mechanism of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication 
employs cell-free replication systems. Model systems have been developed to study 
the replication of SV4(), herpes-simplex, vaccinia and adenovirus as well as leading- 
and lagging-strand DNA synthesis on the bacterial chromosome. These studies aim to 



24 



elucidate control elements and specific protein-nucleic acid interactions involved in 
DNA replication. Related studies are being carried out on the enzymological mecha- 
nisms involved in the recombination of chromosomes. 

Much of the research on the control of cellular metabolism and growth focuses 
on crucial regulatory proteins involved in the transmission of signals at the cell mem- 
brane, including various cell surface receptors, protein kinases, and the calcium bind- 
ing protein, calmodulin. In addition to biochemical and physiological studies, sub- 
stantial effort is being made to isolate and determine the nucleotide sequences of the 
genes encoding these important proteins. How cell determination is affected by the 
alteration of the expression of specific genes in Drosophila is also under study. 

The mechanism of action of viral and cellular genes directly implicated in neo- 
plasia is under active investigation. The study of the mechanism of activation of these 
cellular genes and of their gene products to become oncogenes may provide insight 
into the molecular basis of human cancer. 

A number of investigators are studying the control, regulation, and mechanisms 
of DNA replication in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic viral and cellular systems. Dr. 
Bems uses the life cycle of the human adeno-associated virus AAV2 to model how 
gene expression and DNA replication are regulated. Dr. Hurwitz s laboratory uses the 
adeno and SV40 viral DNA replication systems as probes for the enzymatic mecha- 
nisms of cellular DNA replication. The regulation of bovine papilloma virus DNA rep- 
lication is studied by Dr Liisky using a recently developed in vitro assay. 

Both Dr Traktman s and Dr Rabkin s laboratory study the replication of large 
DNA viruses that encode their own DNA replication machinery. Dr. Traktman em- 
ploys both biochemical and molecular genetical techniques to define the genes of 
vaccinia virus that are required for its replication. Dr. Rabkin is developing an 
in vitro system for the replication of herpes simplex viral DNA in order to identify 
and characterize the proteins involved in these processes. 

Using molecular genetics and biochemistry, the mechanisms that have evolved 
for replicating telomeres, the unique ends of chromosomes required for stability, and 
the role these sequences play in chromosome segregation are being investigated by 
Dr Lustig. 

DNA replication in prokaryotes is under study in the laboratories of Dr Marians 
and Dr O Donnell. Dr. Marians focuses on studies of the enzymok)gical mechanisms 
of DNA replication. The use of in vitro DNA replication systems composed of purified 
replication proteins enables detailed analyses of the interaction of the replication pro- 
teins with each other and with the DNA template. The role of topolog)' in DNA repli- 
cation, as well as the mechanisms of DNA topoisomerases, is also under study 

A detailed examination of the molecular mechanics of DNA replication is also 
the focus of Dr. O'Donnell's laboratory. The dynamic motions on templates of the 
multi-protein replicative polymerase of E. coli and its interaction with other proteins 
at the replication fork are under study. Dr. O Donnell is also beginning to investigate 
the control of initiation of replication of Epstein-Barr virus. 

Another key cellular process that occurs on DNA is the exchange of genetic in- 
formation through the process of recombination. Dr Hollonian s laboratory studies 
the enzymological mechanisms involved in this complicated process. Model studies 
focus on the mechanism of synapsis and DNA strand exchange promoted by the 
rec 1 protein. 

Many aspects of the control of gene expression are under active investigation by 
members of the program. These include the identification and characterization of the 



25 



enzymes involved, the definition of controlling DNA sequences, and the elucidation of 
mechanisms that act to control the temporal and spatial expression of various genes. 

Dr. Krug's research focuses on the unique interaction of influenza virus with its 
host cell as a model system for elucidating control mechanisms involved in the syn- 
thesis, processing, and translation of both viral and cellular messenger RNAs. Dr 
Falck-Pedersen is characterizing the regulatory elements involved in eukaryotic tran- 
scription termination and RNA processing using genetically reconstructed adeno- 
virus as a model vector. Both biochemical and genetic aspects of transcriptional con- 
trol, with particular emphasis on transcription termination in purified in vitro 
systems, are under study by Dr Shuman using vaccinia virus as a model. 

The mediation of gene expression by specific signals is under study in several 
laboratories. Using genetic and molecular genetic techniques, Dr Osley is investigat- 
ing the basis of the periodic expression of the histone genes in yeast. Similar tech- 
niques are in use in Dr Dorset fs laboratory in order to define the cis- and trans- act- 
ing factors that regulate retrotransposons in Drosophila. 

Research in Dr Sheffery's laboratory is directed at understanding how proteins 
and DNA interact to form structures that influence gene transcription, using the 
mouse globin genes as a model. Particular effort is devoted to understanding tissue- 
specific gene expression. 

In a related effort, the basis of sequence-specific recognition of DNA by proteins 
is studied by Dr Barany using a combination of molecular biology. X-ray crystallogra- 
phy, and NMR spectroscopy 

Another key to the control of gene expression is the splicing of mRNA. Dr Hur- 
witz studies the enzymes and enzymological processes involved in human cells, 
whereas Dr Lustig is using a combination of genetics and biochemical analyses to 
dissect the splicing process in yeast. 

Several laboratories concentrate on the mechanism of control of cell growth, in- 
cluding mechanisms of neoplasia, response to hormone stimuli, mechanisms of cell 
determination, and human gene therapy. 

Elucidation of the mechanism of action of insulin and related grov^h factors, 
leading to a detailed understanding of the receptor molecule as well as the mecha- 
nism( s) by which it transmits signals from the cell surface to its interior is the princi- 
pal goal of Dr Rosen's research. 

In a series of experiments in Dr Ravetch's laboratory, the molecular genetic 
analysis of cell surface receptor proteins is being conducted, aimed at defining their 
modulation, mechanism of signal transduction, and developmental regulation by iso- 
lation and characterization of genes that code for proteins binding immunoglobulins 
(FC receptors), by studying the interaction of the malaria producing parasite with the 
erythrocyte, and by characterizing the activated macrophage phenotype. 

Dr Neffis interested in how ion gradients, especially calcium gradients, are in- 
volved in organelle function and cellular polarity in yeast. Toward this goal, a number 
of mutations have been isolated and several genes cloned in her laboratory that affect 
calcium uptake and activity of the major plasma membrane ATPase. 

Using the generation of transgenic mice as the major experimental tool, Dr Lacy 
is studying the regulation and fianction of the CD4 and CDS cell surface glycoproteins 
during T-cell maturation in the thymus, as well as defining developmentally essential 
genes by the production of insertional mutations in the mouse germ line. 

Both Dr DeLotto and Dr Jack use Drosophila as an experimental organism for 
the study of development and cell determination. Dr. DeLotto studies the biochemi- 



26 



cal mechanisms underlying embryonic axis formation using genetic and molecular bi- 
ological approaches. Dr Jack is currently investigating the molecular genetics of de- 
velopment of the peripheral nervous system. 

A strong concentration of faculty- are interested in the mechanism of action of 
oncogenes and their relationship to growth factors. 

The gene for human nerve growth factor has been isolated by Dr. Chao's labora- 
tory. Recombinant DNA technology is being used to study the important structural 
features of the gene and the molecular basis of differential receptor expression during 
development. 

The major objective of Dr. Hayward's laboratory is the elucidation of the molec- 
ular basis of the induction of neoplastic disease, using avian leukosis viruses as model 
systems. Of particular interest at the present time is the identification and characteri- 
zation of oncogenes involved in late stages of tumor progression. 

Dr Brown is studying molecular mechanisms of oncogene action, concentrating 
on tumors induced by the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). A major focus of his 
research is the function of the proto-oncogene int- 1, which is activated by MMTV in 
mammary tumors and is also implicated in early embryonic development of the ner- 
vous system. 

The current research goal in Dr Besnier's laboratory is to understand the func- 
tion of the proto-oncogene kit, a transmembrane receptor kinase; the normal func- 
tions of c-kit and mechanisms of oncogenic activation are being studied. 

Efficient methods to introduce genes into human cells, using retroviruses, are 
being developed in Dr Gilboa s laboratory These methods are used to develop an ef- 
ficient gene therapy protocol for the treatment of genetic disorders and to modify- and 
amplify specific immune responses in the human patient. 



Recent Publications 

Barany, E. A genetic system for isolation and characterization of Taq\ restriction endonuclease mutants. 
GeneS6:\^-2Z 198^. 

Barany, E, The Taq\ star reaction: strand preferences reveal hydrogen bond doner and acceptor sites in ca- 
nonical sequence recognition. Gene 65: 16 1 — 177, 1988. 

Berns, K. I. (with Labow, M. A., and Graf, L. H.), Adeno-associated virus gene expression inhibits cellular 
transformation by heterologous genes. Mol. Cell. Biol "^:1320- 1325, 1987 

Berns, K. I. (with Labow, M. A. ), The adeno-associated virus rep gene inhibits replication of an adeno-asso- 
ciated virus/simian virus 40 hybrid genome in cos-7 cells./. Virol. 62:1705- 1712, 1988. 

Besmer, P (with Murphy J. E., George. P C, Qiu, E H.. Bergold. P G., Hardy W. D., Zuckerman, E. E., Leder- 
man, L., Snyder, H. VC., and Brodeur, D. ), \-kit: oncogene of a new acute transforming feline retrovi- 
rus (HZ4-FeSV) — relationship with the protein kinase gene family Nature 320:415-421, 1986. 

Besmer, P (with Qiu, E, Prabir, R., Brown. K., Barker. P E , Jhanwar, S., and Ruddle, E H. ), Primary structure 
of c-kit: relationship with the CSF-l/PDGE receptor kinase family-oncogenic activation of \'-kit in- 
volves deletion of extra cellular domain and C-terminus. EMBO 7: 1003- 1011, 1988. 

Brown, A. M. C. (with Wildin, R. A., Prendergast, T. J., and Varmus, H. E.), A retrovirus vector expressing the 
putative mammary oncogene int- 1 causes partial transformation of a mammary epithelial cell line. 
Cell 46: 1001 - 1009, 1986. 

Brown, A. M. C. (with PapkofiF, J., Fung, Y-K.T., Shackleford, G. M., and Varmus, H. E. ), Identification of pro- 
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Chao, M. V. (with Johnson, D., Lanahan, A., Buck, C. R., Sehgal, A., Mercer, E., and Bothwell, M.), Expression 
and structure of the human NGF receptor Cell 47:545-554, 1986. 



27 



Chao, M. V. (with Buck, C. R., Martinez, H., and Black, I. B), Developmentally regulated expression of the 

nerve growth factor receptor gene in the periphery and brain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Set. U.S.A 84:3060- 
3063, 1987. 

DeLotto, R. (with Spierer, P), A gene involved in the specification of dorsal ventral pattern in Drosophila 
appears to encode a serine protease. Nature 3 2 3. 688 -69 2, 1986. 

Falck-Pedersen, E. (with Iwamoto, S., Eggerding, E, and Darnell, J. E., Jr ), Transcription unit mapping in 
adenovirus: Regions of termination./ Virol. 59:112—119, 1986. 

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mouse beta major-globin gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 84:8306-8310, 1987. 

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Gilboa, E., Retroviral gene transfer — Applications to human therapy Public Health Research Inst. Symp. on 
Retroviruses and Disease, In press, 1988. 

Hayward, W. S. (with Goodenow, M. M.), 5' LTRs of myc-associated proviruses appear structurally intact 

but are functionally impaired in tumors induced by avian leukosis viruses./. Virol, 61:2489-2498, 
1987 

Hayward, W S. (with Kanter, M., and Smith, R.), Rapid induction of B cell lymphomas: insertional activation 
ofc-mj&byALV / Virol 62:1423-1432, 1988. 

HoUoman, W. (with Kmiec, E. ), Homologous pairing of DNA molecules by Ustilago rec 1 protein is pro- 
moted by sequences of Z-DNA. C^// 44:545-554, 1986. 

Holloman, W. (with Brougham, M. J., and Rowe, T. C.), Topoisomerase from Ustilago maydis forms a cova- 
lent complex with single-stranded DNA through a phosphodiester bond to tyrosine. Biochem. 
25:7362-7368, 1986. 

Hurwitz, J. (with Dean, E B., Dodson, M., and Echols, H. ), Formation of a specialized nucleoprotein struc- 
ture by SV40 large T antigen at the SV40 DNA replication origin requires ATP Proc. Natl Acad. Sci^, 
f/.5.A 84:8981-8985, 1987 

Hurwitz, J. (with Freyer, G. A., Arenas, J., Perkins, K. K., Furneaux, H. M., Pick, L, Young, B., and Roberts, 
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4267-4273, 1987 

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gans by mutations of the cut locus of D. melanogaster Cell 5 1 :293- 307, 1987 

Jack, J. W. (with Blocklinger, K., Bodmer, R, Jan, L. Y, and Jan, Y. N. ), Primary structure and expression of a 
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629-635, 1988. 

Krug, R. M. (with Plotch, S.J. ), In vitro splicing of influenza viral NSl mRNA and NS 1 -beta-globin chimeras: 
possible mechanisms for the control of viral mRNA splicing. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci U.S.A 83:5444- 
5448, 1986. 

Krug, R. M. (with Shapiro, G. I., Gurney T, Jr ), Influenza virus gene expression: control mechanisms at 
early and late times of infection and nuclear-cytoplasmic transport of virus-specific RNAs./. Virol 
61:764-773, 1987 

Lacy, E. (with Mark, W, and Signorelli, K.), A recessive lethal mutation in a transgenic mouse line. In: Molec- 
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Lacy E. (with Lonbcrg, N., Gettner, S., and Littman, D. ), Mouse brain CD4 transcripts encode only the 
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Mol. Cell. Biol New Series 33:251-269, 1986. 



28 



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29 



Neurobiology and Behavior 



Faculty 

Harriet D. Baker 

Ira B. Black 

Dana C. Brooks 

Arthur J. L. Cooper 

Emanuel M. DiCicco-Bloom 

Cheryl Dreyfus 

Daniel Gardner 

James G. Gibbs, Jr 

Gary E. Gibson 

Bernice Graftstein 

Katherine A. Halmi 

Lorraine lacovitti 

Tong H. Joh 

Joseph E. LeDoux 

David E. Levy 

J. John Mann 



Michiko Okamoto 
Gavril W. Pasternak 
Virginia M. Pickel 
Fred Plum 
William Pulsinelli 
Donald J. Reis 
David A. Rottenberg 
David A. Ruggiero 
Jeri A. Sechzer 
Gerard P Smith 
Peter E. Stokes 
Gladys N. Teitelman 
Ellen Tow^nes-Anderson 
Jonathan Victor 
Robert Young 



Research Activities 

Dr. Baker studies the determination and maintenance of neuronal phenotype. Using 
the olfactory system as a model the research focus is on neurotransmitter expression 
during development and aging as vv^ell as in response to deafferenting lesions. Immu- 
nocytochemical, neurochemical, molecular biological and neuronal tracing tech- 
niques are utilized in these studies. 

Dr Black investigates the molecular genetics underlying neuronal plasticity in 
the peripheral nervous system and the brain. A combination of in vivo, tissue culture, 
molecular biological, biochemical and morphologic techniques are employed to ex- 
plore plasticity, and its role in the function of the nervous system. Developmental as 
well as aging models are being studied. 

Dr Brooks is using signal averaging techniques to study the manner in v^hich au- 
ditory information is processed as it passes through the first relay nucleus of the audi- 
tory system in the cat. The potential fields generated by the subdivisions of this nu- 
clear complex are being mapped using an IBM XT and computer graphics programs. 

Dr Cooper is w^orking in the area of 2-oxo acid biochemistry and pyridoxal phos- 
phate enzymes. Another area of active research is the metabolism of ammonia, neuro- 
transmitter amino acids and other amino acids in the brain. For this purpose, mole- 
cules labeled with short-lived radioisotopes are synthesized and used as tracers for 
metabolic studies. Cerebral energy metabolism, with particular emphasis on the 
malate-asparate shuttle, and its disruption in various disease states is also being 
investigated. 

Dr DiCicco Bloom studies molecular regulation of neuronal proliferation in the 
peripheral nervous system and the brain. A combination of in vivo, tissue culture, 



30 



biochemical and morphologic techniques are employed to specifically identify neu- 
rons and define extracellular signals and intracellular second messenger mechanisms 
governing neuronal mitosis. The relationships between neuronal cell division, a de- 
velopmentally restricted event, and differentiation are being examined. 

Dr. Dreyfus' research examines phenotypic development of specific neurons of 
the central nervous system and emphasizes definition of environmental factors which 
may influence brain cell development. This work has concentrated on ontogeny of 
noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus, as well as dopaminergic cells of the 
substantia nigra and peptidergic and cholinergic neurons of the striatum and nucleus 
basalis. 

Dr Gardner studies how neurons use chemical synaptic transmission to commu- 
nicate with one another. Neurons in ganglia of the mollusc Aplysia are probed by in- 
tracellular recording, voltage clamping, patch clamping, and computer-based analysis 
to yield principles of organization of cell networks. One project focuses on properties 
of transmitter-activated channels which are altered to produce different postsynaptic 
currents. A second project combines neurophysiology^ with artificial intelligence 
techniques to ask how neuronal biophysics coordinates the activity of neurons in a 
network. 

Dr Gibbs' research focuses on the neurobiology of motivated behaviors, espe- 
cially the neuroendocrine mechanisms controlling feeding behavior in animals and 
the pathophysiology of eating disorders in humans. 

Dr Gibson examines the relation of calcium, oxidative metabolism and neuro- 
transmitters to altered mental function and cell death. These interactions are exam- 
ined in animal models of conditions that alter mental function in man (aging, hypoxia, 
and thiamin deficiency ) as well as in tissues from Alzheimer patients. In vivo neuro- 
transmitter metabolism is related to behavior and to molecular mechanisms in vitro. 
Human studies include enzyme measurements on autopsied brain as well as studies of 
lymphocytes, red blood cells and cultured skin fibroblasts. 

Dr Grafstein is c{)ncerned with problems of nerve regeneration and the re- 
sponse of nerve cells to injury. Techniques used include light and electron micros- 
copy and radioactive isotope methods for analyzing the axonal transport of proteins 
and other cellular constituents. 

Dr Halmfs current research on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa includes 
long term follow-up studies, investigation of appetite and satiety mechanisms in eat- 
ing disorder patients, assessing taste preferences, neuroendocrine investigations and 
psychological assessments. 

Dr lacovittfs current research activities are directed toward the study of the de- 
veloping nervous system. She is currently examining the principles which govern 
phenotypic expression of particular neurotransmitters in neurons of the peripheral 
and central nervous system. 

Dr Job's main interest is to study the biochemistry and molecular genetics of 
neurotransmitter enzymes and receptors, and neurospecific protein. Multidiscipli- 
nary studies with molecular biologists, developmental biologists, and histochemists 
include the structural analyses of genes coding for neurotransmitter enzymes, gene 
regulation at the transcriptional level, quantitative analysis of mRNAs and gene 
expression during development and aging. 

Dr LeDoux studies the neural pathways mediating emotional information pro- 
cessing and memory Classical conditioning techniques are used to endow sensory 
stimuli with emotional significance. Through the use of anatomical tracing, lesion, the 



31 



electrophysiological recording techniques, the contribution of various brain areas 
and their fiber connections to the coding of stimulus meaning is analyzed. 

Dr. Levy is developing techniques for predicting w^hich comatose patients will re- 
cover and which will not. These efforts include utilization of positron emission tomo- 
graphic scanning to study unconscious patients. He collects detailed clinical informa- 
tion on patients with stroke so that methods for predicting recovery from stroke can 
be developed as they have been for coma. Development of an easily-utilized data en- 
try and analysis system designed to accept serial clinical data on patients with a vari- 
ety of neurological illnesses is an integral part of these efforts. He is also investigating 
effects of tissue plasminogen activator ( t-PA ) in patients with acute stroke. 

Dr. Mann's research focuses on aminergic receptor regulation and transmission 
abnormalities in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Human postmor- 
tem brain tissue, peripheral blood cells with beta adrenergic and serotonergic re- 
ceptor complexes and related animal models are utilized to study the normal and 
diseased state. The laboratory has a particular interest in the neurochemical cor- 
relates of aggressive and anxiety disorders, suicidal behavior and the action of 
antidepressants. 

Dr Okamoto investigates pharmacologic and neuropharmacologic bases of the 
drug dependence caused by general central nervous system depressants in adults and 
neonates exposed to drugs during their fetal period. Barbiturates, benzodiazepines 
and alcohol are the prototype drugs for these studies. 

Ongoing studies involve development of analytical procedures for the determi- 
nation of sedative-hypnotic drugs and their pharmacologically active metabolites, 
steroids, biogenic amines, and polypeptides in biofluids; neuroelectrophysiologic and 
behavioral monitoring of acute and chronic drug actions, investigation of functional 
and cellular mechanisms for the chronic effects produced to these drugs. 

Dr Pasternak is studying the molecular pharmacology of centrally active analge- 
sics. Work in the laboratory currently is focused upon the biochemical and pharma- 
cological characterization of the various opiate receptor subtypes. One goal of the 
laboratory includes examining membrane-bound and affinity -purified receptors and 
their potential coupling with effector systems. Another is the correlation of the var- 
ious subtypes with specific opiate actions in vivo. Finally, the anatomical localization 
of these sites within the central nervous system is studied with quantitative autora- 
diography. Many of these approaches have utilized a series of opiate affinity labels de- 
veloped within the laboratory. 

Dr Picket studies ultrastructural synaptic interactions between monoaminergic 
and peptidergic neurons in brain. Present research is directed toward a more com- 
plete understanding of the synaptic circuitry between neurons containing specific 
transmitters in the basal ganglia and in brainstem nuclei associated with central 
cardiovascular regulation. Specific interactions between central monoaminergic and 
peptidergic neurons are being examined in the adult and developing rat brain using 
immunocytochemical markers and electron microscopy. The peptides of current in- 
terest include opioids, substance neurotensin, and angiotensin. 

Dr Plum, C:hairman of the Department of Neurology, focuses his research on 
cerebral metabolism in disease states and the identification of cellular-subcellular 
mechanisms responsible for ischemic cell death. 

Dr Pulsinetti studies the molecular mechanisms of ischemic injury to brain neu- 
rons and glia. Techniques used in these studies include in vivo and in vitro {ixssun 
culture) models of ischemic injury to brain cells, radioisotopic measurements of cer- 



32 



ebral blood flow and glucose metabolism, fluorometric measurements of high energy 
organic metabolites, analysis of phosphorylation of brain proteins, and light and elec- 
tron microscopic studies of cell injury. 

Dr. Rets' research interests are the central neural and neurochemical mecha- 
nisms governing control of the autonomic nervous system, cerebral blood flow and 
metabolism. His research also includes mechanisms governing the death of brain neu- 
rons in response to aging and injury 

Dr. Rottenberg's studies of cerebral blood flow and metabolism using positron 
emission tomography ( PET) have focused on tissue pH, steroid-induced modifications 
of the blood-brain barrier and the metabolic pathology- of the AIDS Dementia Com- 
plex. Ongoing studies are concerned with the anatomical distribution and functional 
significance of cerebral glucocorticoid ( GR ) receptors, the metabolic correlates of 
higher integrative functions, including attention, and the functional anatomy of sub- 
cortical dementia. 

Dr Ruggieros interests include: anatomical and neurochemical pathways in 
brain which maintain normal resting levels of arterial blood pressure; neural sub- 
strates of the baroreceptor reflex; pathways underlying the cerebellar regulation of 
autonomic activities and cerebral blood flow; areas of autonomic representation in 
cerebral cortex and brainstem reticular formation; adrenaline synthesizing neurons 
and their pathways in the central nervous system. 

Dr Sechzer's research interests include: early development, behavioral toxicol- 
ogy, neural mechanisms of memory and learning, and neurosensory perception. Her 
current activities include: ( 1 ) The effect of lithium chloride on maternal behavior and 
early development; ( 2 ) Olfactory and gustatory perception in depression; ( 3) Bioethi- 
cal issues concerning the use of animals in research and education. 

Dr Smith is interested in the behavioral neuroscience of eating and its disorders. 
Current experiments include the measurement of central monoamines during eating 
behavior, the role of gut peptides, such as cholecystokinin, to stop eating, animal 
models of eating disorders using genetic and sham feeding rats, and the experimental 
analysis of taste and eating in human patients with various tv pes of eating disorders. 

Dr Stokes is interested in neuroendocrine fimction in affective disease. Measure- 
ments of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA ) function at various levels of 
this axis are obtained in patients with depression vs healthy normal controls and pa- 
tients with other psychiatric diagnoses. Current specific interests include: response 
of the HPA system to administration of CRF, ACTH, dexamethasone and adrenocorti- 
cal steroid blockers, pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone, measurement of multiple 
adrenal steroids, investigation of the relationship between HPA function and biogenic 
amine and sympathetic nervous system activit}'. A second area of interest is the inves- 
tigation of lithium pharmacokinetics and the pharmacology-toxicology of lithium iso- 
topes in animals and humans. 

Dr Teitelnmn s research interests include the cellular events controlling the 
expression of neurospecific proteins, such as neurotransmitter biosynthetic enzymes 
in autonomic ganglia of avian and mammalian embryos. Another area of her active re- 
search revolves around mechanisms involved in the differentiation of the endocrine 
cells of pancreatic islets from cells transiently expressing neurospecific enzymes. 
The techniques used in these studies include tissue culture, biochemistry and 
immunocytochemistry. 

Dr Townes -Anderson is interested in the cell biolog>' of retinal neurons. Cur- 
rently cells isolated from the adult vertebrate retina are used in vitro to address 



33 



questions concerning synaptic function and plasticity. Membrane recycling at the 
photoreceptor synapse is bejng examined with morphological techniques including 
rapid freezing and electron microscopy Localization of neurotransmitter receptors is 
performed on isolated second and third order neurons. And regeneration of func- 
tional synapses is being investigated in cultures of adult nerve cells. 

Dr. Victor studies visual processing at retinal and cortical levels. Research tech- 
niques include single-unit recording, evoked potentials, psychophysics, and mathe- 
matical modelling. Other research interests include novel approaches to nonlinear 
systems analysis and signal processing as applied to neural systems. 

Dr Young's interest is in approaching relationships between brain neurotrans- 
mitter function and behaviors by studying major affective illness developing in late 
life. Indices of brain catecholaminergic function and behaviors are studied in patients 
when symptomatic and after drug treatment and in normal subjects. The laboratory 
measures applied include neurotransmitter metabolite excretion, neuroendocrine 
tests, brain imaging, and antidepressant drug concentrations. 



Recent Publications 

Baker, H. (with Spencer, R. ), Transneuronal transport of peroxidase-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin 
( WGA-HRP) from the olfactory epithelium to the brain of the adult rat. Exp. Brain Res. 63:461 - 
473, 1986. 

Baker, H., Species differences in the distribution of substance P and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity 
in the olfactory bulb./ Comp. Neurol. 252:206-236, 1986. 

Black, 1. B. (with Adler, J. E., Dreyfus, C. E, Friedman, W. J., and LaGamma, E. E ), Experience and the bio- 
chemistry of information storage in the nervous system. Science, 236: 1263- 1268, 1987. 

Black, 1. B., (with Adler, J. E., Dreyfus, C. F, Friedman, W. J., LaGamma, E. F and Roach, A. H. ), Experience, 
neurotransmitter plasticity and behavior, in Psychopharmacology\ The Third Generation of Pro- 
gress (Meltzer, Bunney Coyle, Davis, Kopin, Schuster, Shader and Simpson, eds. ) Raven Press, New 
York, pp. 463-469, 1987 

Cooper, A.J. L. (with Kraig, R. P), Bicarbonate and ammonia changes in brain during spreading depression. 
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 65:1099- 1104, 1987 

Cooper, A.J. L. (with Ginos, J. Z., Dhawan, V, Lai, J. C. K., Strother, S. C, Alcock, N. and Rottenberg, D. ), 

[ ' JCisplatin PET to assess pharmacokinetics of intra arterial versus intravenous chemotherapy for 
malignant brain tumors./ Nuci Med. 28:1944- 1952, 1987 

DiCicco-Bloom, E. (with Black, I. B. ), Insulin growth factors regulate the mitotic cycle in cultured rat sym- 
pathetic neuroblasts. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci USA 85:in press, 1988. 

Dreyfus, C. F (with Friedman, W. J., McEwen, B. S. and Black, 1. B. ), Substance K (NKA) increases tyrosine 
hydroxylase mRNA in cultured substantia nigra in culture. Molecular Brain Res. 3:203-206, 1988. 

Dreyfus, C. E (with Friedman, W. J., McEwen, B. S. and Black, 1. B. ), Presynaptic transmitters and depolariz- 
ing influences regulate development of the substantia nigra in culture./. Neurosci, in press. 

Gardner, D., Variations in amplitude and time course of inhibitory postsynaptic currents./ Neurophysiol. 
56:1424-1438, 1986. 

Gardner, D., A test for modulation of synaptic efficacy by induced membrane potential veriance. Brain Res. 
Bulletin, in press. 

Gibbs, J. (with Smith, G. P ), Ciut peptides and feeding behavior: the model of cholecystokinin, in Feeding 
Behavior: Neural and Humoral Controls ( R. C Ritter and S. Ritter, editors ). Academic Press, Ne\^' 
York, 329-352, 1986. 

Gibbs, J. (with Smith, G. P), Satiety: the roles of peptides from the stomach and the intestine. Fed. Proc. 
45:1391-1395, 1986. 

Gibson, G. E. (with Freeman, G. B., and Mykytyn, V. ) Selective Damage in Striatum and Hippocampus with 
In Vitny AnoxisL. Neurochemical Research 13:( 4)329- 335, 1987 



34 



Gibson, G. E. (with Peterson, C. ), Calcium and the Aging Nervous System. Neurob. of Aging 8:329-343, 
1987. 



Grafstein, B. (with Perry, G. W. and Burmeister, D. W. ), Fast axonally transported proteins in regenerating 
goldfish optic axons./ Neurosci. 7:792-806, 1987 

Grafstein, B. (with Larrivee, D. C. ), In vivo phosphorylation of axonal proteins in goldfish optic nerve dur- 
ing regeneration./ Neurochem. 48:279-283, 1987 

Halmi, K. A., Satiety and Taste in Eating Disorders in: Disorders of Eating Behavior. A psychoneuroendo- 
crine approach. Advances in Biosciences Vol. 60, (eds. ) E. Ferrari & F Brambilla, Pergamon Press, 
NY, 1986, p. 199-203. 

Halmi, K. A. (with Eckert, E., LaDu, T, and Cohen, J. ), "Anorexia Nervosa: Treatment efficacy of cyprohepta- 
dine and amitriptyline," Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 43:177- 181, 1986. 

lacovitti, L. ( with Joh, T. H., Albert, V. R., Reis, D. J., and Teitelman, G. ), Partial expression of catecholamin- 
ergic traits in cholinergic chick ciliary ganglion: studies in vivo and in vitro. Dev. Biol., in press. 

Joh, T. H. (with Albert, V. R. and Allen, J. M. ), A single gene codes for aromatic L- Amino acid decarboxylase 
in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues./ Biol. Chem., 262:9404-9411, 1987 

Joh, T. H. (with Abate, C and Smith, J. A. ), Characterization of catalytic domain of bovine adrenal tyrosine 
hydroxylase. Biochem. Biophys Res Comm., 151:1446-1453, 1988. 

LeDoux, J. E. (with Hirst. W. ), Mind and Brain. Cambridge University Press, NY, 1986. 

LeDoux, J. E., Emotion. Handbook of Physiology. The Nervous System, V, 419-459, 1987 

Mann, J. J., Psychobiologic predictors of suicide./. Clin. Psychiatry, 48:39-43, 1987 

Mann, J. J. (with Stanley, M., McBride, P A. and McEwen, B. S. ), Increased serotonin^ and beta-adrenergic 
binding in frontal cortex of suicide victims. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43:954-959, 1986. 

Okamoto, M. (with Rao, S., and Walewski, J. L. ), Effect of d{)sing frequency on the development of physical 
dependence and tolerance to pentobarbital./. Phanruicol. Exp. Ther 238:1004- 1008, 1986. 

Pasternak, G. E. (with Bodnar, R. J., Williams, C. W, and Lee, S.J. ) Role of mu, opiate receptors in supras- 
pinal opiate analgesia: a microinjection study Brain Res 447:25-37 1988. 

Pasternak, G. W. (with Ling, G. S. F, Spiegel, K., and Lockhart, S. H. ), Separation of opioid analgesia from res- 
piratory depression: evidence for different receptor mechanisms./. Pharmacol Exp. Ther 
232:149-155, 1985. 

Pulsinelli^ W. (with Kiessling, M. Dienel, G. and Jacewicz, M. ), Protein synthesis in postischemic rat brain: A 
two dimensional electrophoretic analysis./. Cereb. Blood Flow & Metab. 6:642-649, 1986. 

Pulsinelli, W. (with Kraig, R., Petito, and Plum, F ), Hydrogen ions kill brain at concentrations reached in 
ischemia./ Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 7:379-386, 1987 

Reis, D.J. The CI area of rostral ventrolateral medulla: role in tonic and reflex regulation of arterial pres- 
sure, in: Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Regulation. A. Magro, W. Osswald, 
D. Reis and P Vanhoutte (eds. ), Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, pp. 487—502, 1986. 

Reis, D. J. (with ladecola, C. ), Regulation by the brain of its blood flow and metabolism: Role of intrinsic 
neuronal networks and circulating catecholamines, in Neural Regulation of Brain Circulation Vol. 
8, Eric K. Fernstrom Symposium, E. Owman and J. E. Hardebo (eds. ) Elsevier Science Publ. pp. 129- 
145, 1986. 

Rottenberg, D. A. (with Moeller, J. R., Strother, S. C. and Sidtis. J. J. ), The scaled subprofile model: a statistical 
approach to the analysis of functional patterns in positron emission tomographic data./. Cereb. 
Blood Flow MetaboL 7:649-658, 1987 

Rottenberg, D. A. (with Moeller, J. R., Strother, S. C, Sidtis, J. J., Navia, B. A., Dhawan, V, Ginos, J. Z. and 

Price, R. W. ), The metabolic pathology of the AIDS dementia complex. Ann. Neurol 22:700-706, 
1987 

Ruggiero, D. A. (with Ross, C. A., Anwar, M., Park, D. H., Joh, T. H., and Reis, D.J. ), Distribution of neurons 
containing phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in medulla and hypothalamus of rat./. Comp. 
Neurol in press. 

Sechzer, J. A. (with Lieberman, K. W, Alexander, G. A., Weidman, D., and Stokes, P E. ), Aberrant parenting 
and delayed oflFspring development in rats exposed to lithium. Biol Psych. 2 1 : 1258— 1266, 1986. 

Sechzer, J. A. (with Lieberman, K. W and Alexander, G. J.), Stable isotopes of lithium: dissimilar biochemical 
and behavioral effects. Experientia 42:985-987 1986. 



35 



Smith, G. P (with Gibbs, J. ), The satiating effect of cholecystokinin, in Control of Appetite, M. Winick, (ed), 
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 35-40, 1988. 

Smith, G. R (with Siegel, A. and Joyner, K. ), Effect of bilateral ibotenic acid lesions in the basolateral amyg- 
dala on the sham feeding response to sucrose in the rat. Physiol. Behav. 42:231-235, 1988. 

Stokes, R E. (with Sikes, C), Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in affective disorders, m Psychopharma- 
cology: A Third Generation of Progress ( H. Y. Meltzer, ed. ). New York: Raven Press, pp. 589-607, 
1987 

Stokes, P E. (with Maas, J. W, Davis, J. M., Koslow, S. H., Casper, R. C, and StoU, R M. ), Biogenic amine and 
metabolite levels in depressed patients with high versus normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocor- 
tical activit). Amer J. Psychiat. 144:868-872, 1987 

Townes-Anderson, E. (with Vogt, B. A. and Burns, D. L. ), Dissociated cingulate cortical neurons: morphol- 
ogy and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding properties./. Neurosci 7:959-971, 1987 

Townes-Anderson, E., (with Dacheux, R. E and Raviola, E. ), Rod photoreceptors dissociated from the adult 
rabbit retina./ TVewrosci 8:320-331, 1988. 

Victor, J. D., Evaluation of poor performance and asymmetry in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test. In- 
vest. Ophth Vis Set 29:476-481, 1988. 

Victor, J. D., (with Conte, M. M. ) Visual evoked potentials elicited by simple and complex textures: distinct 
components with similar scalp topographies, in Evoked Potetitials III: The Third International 
Evoked Potentials Symposium, eds. C. Barber and T. Blum. Boston: Butterworths. In press, 1988. 

Young, R. C, (with Dhar, A. K., Kutt, H., Alexopoulos, G. S., and Shomoian, C. A. ), Isomers of 10-hydroxynor- 
triptyline in plasma in geriatric depression. Ther Drug Monitoring 10( 2 ): 164- 167 1988. 

Young, R. C, (with Alexopoulos, G. S., Shindledecker, R., Dhar, A. K., and Kutt, H. ), Plasma 10-hydroxynor- 
triptyline and therapeutic response in geriatric depression. Neuropsychopharmacol, in press. 



Pharmacology 



Faculty 

Joseph R. Bertino 
Walter W. Y. Chan 
Ting-Chao Chou 
Diane F. Felsen 
Owen W. Griffith 
Charles E. Inturrisi 
Roberto Levi 
John Mendelsohn 



Michiko Okamoto 
Gavril W. Pasternak 
Marcus M. Reidenberg 
Arleen B. Rifkind 
Francis M. Sirotnak 
Hazel H. Szeto 
Kyoichi A. Watanabe 



Research Activities 

The Graduate Pharmacology Program offers a broad spectrum of training opportuni- 
ties from the molecular level to whole organism pharmacology. 

Dr. Bertino is interested in the transfer of drug resistant genes into hematopoetic 
cells: Both electroporation and viral vectors have been studied as methods of intro- 
ducing drug resistant genes (chloramphenicol-acetyl transferase; an altered dihydro- 
folate reductase from 3T6 cells) into mammalian cells in culture, and into bone mar- 



36 



row cells. This method appears to be a powerful one for introducing substances into 
cells that are ordinarily excluded, and thus study their intracellular activity. The aim 
is to produce long-term expression of drug resistant genes in hematopoetic stem 
cells. Both in vitro (CFU^ ) and in vivo (CFU,) studies are being pursued in mice. The 
purpose of these studies is to produce drug resistance of marrow stem cells, thus al- 
lowing larger doses of the desired drug to be utilized for therapy. 

Site specific mutagenesis of the dihydrofolate reductase gene: By using oligo- 
nucleotides with specific base changes, it has been possible to synthesize full-length 
cDNAs containing the desired mutation via the M- 13 cloning system. The purpose of 
these studies is to better understand the effects of specific amino acid substitutions 
on substrate and inhibitor binding, and to hopefully develop an altered enzyme with a 
decreased affinity for methotrexate, but with good catalytic activity. 

Development of a rapid in vitro test for detection of resistance to methotrexate 
and trimetrexate: Work has continued, utilizing leukemia cells from patients sensitive 
and resistant to methotrexate, to determine the degree and mechanism of drug 
resistance. 

Studies with the new antifolate, trimetrexate: A phase 1 study has been com- 
pleted. In rodent models, this drug was found to synergize with Carboxypeptidase G, 
a folate depleting enzyme, and when utilized following methotrexate treatment. Clini- 
cal studies are planned using these combinations. 

Dr Chan is interested in the functions and interactions of prostaglandins and 
neurohypophysial peptides in the kidney and the uterus. Current research covers in- 
vestigative studies from subcellular levels to the whole organism. Certain analogs of 
oxytocin and vasopressin have been found to stimulate urinary sodium and water ex- 
cretion. This renal effect of the peptide appears to be mediated by renal prostaglan- 
din release. The biochemical mechanisms of this peptide-induced prostaglandin re- 
lease is the principal concern of our research. Also studied are the renal activities of 
peptide analogs specifically synthesized for the project with the aim to discover spe- 
cific prostaglandin-releasing peptides that may be useful for the treatment of renal 
hypertension. 

In the uterus, the roles of prostaglandins and oxytocin in the regulation of uter- 
ine contractions and termination of pregnancy are investigated. This research seeks 
an understanding of the mechanism of initiation of labor, especially relating to pre- 
term labor Oxytocin-receptor and gap-junction formations in myometrial cells are 
important biochemical and morphological markers in the initiation of labor. Accord- 
ingly, a study is made of the effects of prostaglandins and oxytocin on the density of 
oxytocin-receptors and on the formation of gap-junctions in myometrial cells. Highly 
potent oxytocin antagonists have been synthesized for this project and their applica- 
tion in the prevention of preterm labor in the pregnant rat model will be investigated. 
Also studied are the physiological roles of ovarian oxytocin and uterine prostaglan- 
dins in the function of the corpus luteum, as well as the potential of intervention of 
this ovarian-utero axis in the regulation of fertility or as causal factor in abortion. 

Dr Chou's major research objectives are the study of: ( 1 ) the mechanisms of ac- 
tion of antitumor and antiviral agents; ( 2 ) the biochemical and pharmacological bases 
for the selectivity of effects on different targets; and ( 3 ) the derivation of theoretical 
formulations for dose-effect relationships that permits the automated computer analy- 
sis of relative potency and therapeutic index and facilitates the study of the interac- 
tion of multiple drugs in combination chemotherapy The compounds of current in- 
terest include potent antiherpes viral agents, anti-human immunodeficiency virus 



37 



(anti-HIV) agents, classical antifolate analogs and lipid-soluble antifolates. Emphasized 
are pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and preclinical toxicology, the determina- 
tion of affinity and efficacy of drug interaction with enzymes or other targets, the elu- 
cidation of molecular events following the binding or incorporation of a drug into ma- 
cromolecules, and the development of computer programs for drug evaluation, 
especially the synergism/antagonism of drugs in combinations. Currently several of 
the compounds mentioned above are in clinical trials. Also, software for dose-effect 
analysis has recently been developed for microcomputers. 

Dr. Felsen is interested in the role of arachidonic acid metabolites (AAMs; prosta- 
glandins, hydroxy acids and leukotrienes) and other mediators of inflammation (e.g., 
platelet-activating factor) in renal and hepatic function. The role of these compounds 
both in vivo and in vitro is studied using a combination of techniques. These include 
measurement of renal blood flow, both isotopically and nonisotopically glomerular fil- 
tration rate and other parameters of renal function (Na+ and K+ excretion, water ex- 
cretion, etc.). In vitro, both isolated organs and cell culture techniques are used for 
studies of renal and hepatic cells. These methods may provide an understanding of 
the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of AAMs and other inflamma- 
tory mediators in different models of renal and hepatic disease. 

Dr Griffith's research involves the design, synthesis and utilization in vivo of en- 
zyme selective inhibitors and substrates. These compounds are used both to evaluate 
and to control the metabolite flux through various pathways in intact animals. Recent 
studies have focused on the manipulation of glutathione and cysteine metabolism. 
Enzyme-selective inhibitors were developed that allow both glutathione biosynthesis 
and utilization to be blocked; techniques allowing extracellular cystine formation to 
be controlled were also developed. The inhibitors were shown to be useful in treat- 
ing animal trypanosomiasis, enhancing oxidative killing of tumor cells, and prevent- 
ing the formation of leukotriene C. In other studies, novel carnitine analogs were syn- 
thesized as inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyltransferase and were shown to block long- 
chain fatty acid oxidation in vivo. In mice with diabetes, a disorder characterized by 
underutilization of glucose and overutilization of fats, these compounds prevent ke- 
toacidosis and restore normal blood glucose levels. Studies are continuing in which 
carnitine analogs are used to probe the regulatory interactions between carbohydrate 
and fatty acid metabolism. 

Dr Inturrisi is developing a scientific basis for the use of opioid analgesics in 
the management of pain. Research is conducted at the molecular, receptor and 
patient levels. 

The role of neurogenic and hormonal factors in the regulation of mRNA tran- 
scription and opioid peptide biosynthesis in CNS and adrenal medullary tissues is 
being investigated by use of high performance liquid chromatography, tracer tech- 
niques and cDNA probes. 

Chronic treatment with opioid antagonists increases opioid binding in the cen- 
tral nervous system and produces an increase in the analgesic activity of morphine. 
Studies are being conducted on the functional and molecular consequences of these 
effects with respect to dosage, strain and species differences, development of toler- 
ance and dependence, and mediation at spinal and supraspinal sites. 

Clinical studies are aimed at developing pharmacologic models from patient data 
that can be used to improve analgesic therapy and provide insight into the quantita- 
tive aspects of the development of tolerance to opioids in these patients. Of special in- 



38 



terest are the value of newer opioids, opioid peptides and novel routes of administra- 
tion in the management of pain in cancer patients. 

Dr. Levi examines the possibility that mediators of inflammation and immune hy- 
persensitivity cause cardiac dysfunction and play a role in the pathogenesis of sudden 
death, heart attacks, and cardiac failure. The molecular bases of the decrease in car- 
diac contractility by leukotrienes, platelet-activating factor and histamine, as well as 
the electrophysiological and biochemical effects of these mediators are being stud- 
ied. Further, the relevance of complement activation and anaphylatoxin generation in 
cardiac hypersensitivity is being investigated. The possible physiological role of en- 
dogenous cardiac histamine as a modulator of the responses to activation of the sym- 
pathetic nervous system is being uncovered. The receptors mediating this histamine- 
induced modulation are being sought and the molecular mechanisms of this modula- 
tion are being assessed. 

Dr. Mendelsohn's long-range goal is to explore the role of growth factors in pro- 
moting the proliferation of malignant cells. He is using anti-receptor monoclonal anti- 
bodies to examine the function of receptors for growth factors and to attempt to reg- 
ulate the proliferation of human tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Human trials with 
anti-EGF receptor monoclonal antibodies are being planned with tumors expressing 
increased numbers of EGF receptors, such as squamous carcinoma of the lung. 

Dr Okamoto studies the pharmacologic and neuropharmacologic bases of the 
drug dependence caused by general central nervous system depressants in adults and 
neonates exposed to drugs during their fetal period. Barbiturates, benzodiazepines 
and alcohol are the prototype drugs for these studies. 

Ongoing studies involve development of analytical procedures for the determi- 
nation of sedative-hypnotic drugs and their pharmacologically active metabolites, 
steroids, biogenic amines, and polypeptides in biofluids; neuroelectrophysiologic and 
behavioral monitoring of acute and chronic drug actions, investigation of functional 
and cellular mechanisms for the chronic effects produced by these drugs. 

Dr Pasternak studies the biochemical and pharmacological properties of various 
subclasses of opiate receptors within the central nervous system. Molecular ap- 
proaches include binding studies and affinity labeling of receptors using a series of ir- 
reversible opiate agonists and antagonists developed and synthesized in this labora- 
tory. Computerized quantitative autoradiographic studies are aimed at the 
distribution of the various subtypes of receptors complement the biochemical stud- 
ies. In addition to these molecular studies, the biochemically defined binding sub- 
types are correlated with specific opiate actions, including analgesia, respiratory 
depression, gastrointestinal motility and hormone modulation, using classical phar- 
macological techniques. Again, the selective affinity labels developed in this labora- 
tory have proven invaluable in these studies. 

Dr Reidenberg pursues a fundamental question in clinical pharmacology, "Why 
do different people react differently to the same dose of the same medicine?" His pro- 
gram in clinical pharmacology addresses this question in several different ways. One 
way is to apply the tools of pharmacokinetics to learn if differences in drug disposi- 
tion or tissue sensitivity are the reasons for differences in responses. Currently, this 
approach is being used to learn how aging modifies drug response so that drug ther- 
apy can be appropriately individualized for elderly people. This research is also at- 
tempting to differentiate effects of aging itself from the effects of diseases that pro- 
gress as people age. A current focus is on the decline in kidney fianction with age and 



39 



the ability of the kidney to "adapt" to modest levels of nephrotoxic chemicals in the 
environment. 

Dr. Rifleind's interest in environmental toxicology has led to the investigation of 
the biochemical mechanisms of polychlorinated biphenyl and dioxin toxicity. Toxic 
polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins are known to bind to a cytosolic and nuclear 
receptor known as the Ah receptor which controls the expression of a group of gene 
products, the major one being a form of cytochrome P-450 known as cytochrome 
P-448. Although induction of hepatic cytochrome P-448 regularly accompanies PAH 
toxicity it does not directly cause the toxicity In investigating how receptor activa- 
tion leads to the various toxic changes, it was found that treatment with toxic PCBs 
and dioxins increases the hepatic metabolism of arachidonic acid by cytochrome 
P-450 and also that toxic PCBs and dioxins cause cardiac contractile dysfunction. 
Current studies focus on the role of arachidonic acid metabolites in producing the 
toxic manifestations of PCBs and dioxins and the nature of the biochemical changes 
accompanying the decreased cardiac contractile responsiveness in PCB and dioxin 
treated animals. 

Dr. Sirotnak's research focuses on ( 1 ) molecular targets and other cellular bio- 
chemical determinants important to selective antitumor action of various categories 
of cytotoxic antimetabolites; ( 2 ) cytoplasmic membrane transport of pharmacologic 
agents; (3) molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance of tumor cells to antineo- 
plastic agents; and (4) the regulation of folate and nucleoside transporter gene 
expression. 

Folates play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of macromolecules. Access of tumor 
cells to exogenous plasma folate is made possible by the existence in the cytoplasmic 
membrane of a specific high-affinity transport system. Using c-DNA probes, the ge- 
netic regulation and molecular biology of this system are now being examined in 
models which constitutively over-produce or under produce the transport protein 
and during induction of tumor cells to terminal maturation. 

Folate and nucleoside analogs effectively accumulate in tumor cells via plasma 
membrane systems normally transporting natural folates and nucleosides. To under- 
stand the selective antitumor action of folate and nucleoside analogs, studies are 
being conducted of the properties and multiplicity of their cellular membrane trans- 
port, their interaction with enzymic and macromolecular targets, their intracellular 
metabolic disposition and their pharmacokinetic behavior Mechanisms of acquired 
resistance in tumor cells to these antimetabolites and other cytoxic agents at the 
level of their cellular membrane transport metabolic disposition and enzymic targets 
are also studied. 

Dr Szeto's laboratory is interested in the effects of prenatal drug exposure on the 
development of the central nervous system, particularly in the development of sleep- 
wake behavior and the regulation of breathing in the fetus and neonate. As such inves- 
tigations cannot be carried out in humans, the fetal lamb is used as an animal model. 
Techniques that permit continuous intrauterine recording of fetal electrocortical ac- 
tivity, eye movements, postural muscle activity, and diaphragmatic activity, resulted in 
the finding that prenatal exposure to opiates and benzodiazepines can alter fetal be- 
havioral and breathing activity. The mechanisms involved are currently being 
investigated. 

Another area of study is the effect of maternal marijuana smoking on maternal 
and fetal neurobehavior, hemodynamics, metabolism and hormonal regulation. 



40 



Dr. Watanabe has a broad interest in various facets of organic chemistry and bio- 
chemistry, especially in the development of new chemical reactions and their applica- 
tion to the design of novel molecules that exhibit anti-cancer/viral activity, or are use- 
ful in elucidating enzyme reaction mechanisms. Many analogues of nucleic acid 
components ( nucleosides ) have been designed and synthesized using new chemical 
reactions developed in his laboratory Some of them showed potent anti -cancer/ viral 
activity and underwent clinical studies. Many folic acid analogues and intercalating 
agents have been synthesized and used in the study of the mechanisms of drug action. 



Recent Publications 

BertinoJ. R. (with Rodenhuis, S., McGuireJ. J., and Narayanan, R.), Development of an assay system for the 
detection and classification of methotrexate resistance in fresh human leukemia cells. Cancer Res. 
46:6513-6519. 1986. 

BertinoJ. R. (with Sobrero, A., Mini, E., Moroson, B. A., and C;:ashmore, A. ), Design and rationale for novel 
antifolates. Folates ami Folic Acid Antagonists in Cancer Chef tu). Ther pp. 8"'-91, 1987. 

(.han. W. Y (with Hruby V. J., Rockway T. W, and Hlavacek, J. ), Design of oxytocin antagonists with pro- 
longed action: potential tocolytic agents for the treatment of preterm labor/ Pharmacol Exp. Ther. 
239:84-87 1986. 

Chan, W. Y, Enhanced prostaglandin synthesis in the parturient rat uterus and its effects on myometrial oxy- 
tocin receptor concentrations. Prostaglatuiins 3-*:889-902, 1987 

Chou, T. C. (with Kong, W B., Fanucchi, M. P, Cheng, Y C., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, K. A., and Fox, J. J. ), Syn- 
thesis and biological effects of 2'-fluoro-5-ethyl- 1 -P-D-arabinofuranosyluracil. Antimicrob. Agents 
Chemother. 31:1355-1358, 198^. 

Chou, T. C. (with Talalay, H ), Applications of the median-effect principle for the a.ssessment of low-dose risk 
carcinogens and for the quantitation of synergism and antagonism of chemotherapeutic agents, in: 
Neu'Ai'ennes in Deivlopniental Camer Chetnotherafyy, Bristol-Myers Symposium Series, K. R. Har- 
rap, and T. A. Connors, Eds., pp. 37-64, New \ork. Academic Press, 1987. 

Felsen, D. (with Loo, M. H., Marion, D. N., Vaughan, E. D., and Albanese, C. T), Effect of thromboxane inhibi- 
tion on renal blood flow in dogs with complete unilateral ureteral obstruction./ Lfrol 136:1343— 
1347 1986. 

Feisen, D. (with Weisman, S. M., and Vaughan, E. D. ), Platelet-activating factor is a potent stimulus for renal 
prostaglandin synthesis: Possible significance in unilateral ureteral obstruction./ Pharmacol Ex- 
per Ther 235:10-15, 1985. 

Griffith, O. W. (with Weinstein, C. L. ), Cysteinesulfonate and p Sulfopyruvate metabolism./ BicA. Chem. 
263:3735-3743, 1988. 

Griffith, O. W. ( with Jenkens, D. L. ), Antiketogenic and hypoglycemic effects of aminocarnitine and Acyl- 
aminocarnitines. Proc Natl Acad. Sci USA 83:290-294, 1986. 

Inturrisi, C. E. (with Colburn, W. A., Kaiko, R. E, Houde, R. W., and Foley, K. M. ), Pharmacokinetics and phar- 
macodynamics of methadone in patients with chronic pain. Clin. Pharmacol Ther 4 1 :392 — 401, 
1987 

Inturrisi, C. E. (with Branch, A. D., Robertson, H. D., Howells, R. D., Franklin, S. O., Shapiro, J. R., Calvano, S. 
E., and Yoburn, B. C. ), Glucocorticoid regulation of enkephalins in cultured rat adrenal medulla. 
Mol. Endocrinology 2:63 3 -640, July 1988. 

Levi, R. (with Gross, S. S. ) Peptido-leukotrienes induce an endothelium-dependent relaxation of guinea pig 
main pulmonary artery and thoracic aorta. Prostaglandins 34:685—696, 1987. 

Levi, R. (with Robertson, D. A., Wang, D. Y, and Lee, C. O. ) Negative inotropic effect of platelet activating 
factor: association with a decrease in intracellular sodium activity./. Pharmacol Exper Ther, 
245:124-128,1988. 

Mendelsohn, J. (with Sunadi, H., Magun, B. E., and MacLeod, C. L. ), Monoclonal antibody against epidermal 
growth factor receptor is internalized without stimulating receptor phosphorylation. Proc. Natl. 
Acad. Sci USA 83:3825-3829, 1986. 



41 



Mendelsohn, J. (with Santon, J. B., Cronin, M. T, MacLeod, C. L, Masui, H., and Gill, G. N), Effects of epider- 
mal growth factor concentration on tumor genisis of A431 cells in nude mice. Cancer Res. 46:4701 - 
4705, 1986. 

Mendelsohn, J. (with Masui, H., and Moroyama, T. ), Mechanism of antitumor activity in mice for anti-epider- 
mal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies with different isotypes. Cancer Res. 46:5592- 
5598, 1986. 

Okamoto, M., Barbiturate tolerance and physical dependence: Contribution of pharmacological factors. In: 
Mechanisms of Tolerance and Dependence. NIDA Research Monograph Series 54:333-347 1985. 

Okamoto, M. (with Rao, S. N., Aaronson, L. M., and Walewski, J. L. ), Ethanol drug interaction with chlor- 
diazepoxide and pentobarbital. A/co^o//5m; Clin, and Exp. Res 9:516-521, 1985. 

Pasternak, G. W. (with Bodnar, R. J., Williams, C. W, and Lee, S. J. ), Role of mu, opiate receptors in supra- 
spinal opiate analgesia: a microinjection study Brain Res 447:25-37 1988. 

Pasternak, G. W. (with Ling, G. S. E, Spiegel, K., and Lockhart, S. H. ), Separation of opioid analgesia from res- 
piratory depression: evidence for different receptor mechanisms./. PhamuicoL Exp. Ther 
232:149-155, 1985. 

Reidenberg, M. M. (with Restivo, K. M., Drayer, D. E., Orto, L, and Bond, C). ) The accumulation of poly- 
amines and their weak association with lower body temperature in elderly convalescent patients. 
/ Lab. Clin. Med. 110:217-220, 1987 

Reidenberg, M. M. (with Goodman, H., Erie, H., Gray, G., Lorenzo, B., Leipzig, R. M., Meyer, B. R., and Drayer, 
D. E. ), Hydromorphine levels and pain control in patients with severe chronic pain. Clin Pharmacol 
Ther, in press, 1988. 

Rifkind, A. B. (with Quilley, C. P), Prostaglandin release by the chick embryo heart is increased by 2, 3, 7 8- 
tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and by other cytochrome P-448 inducers. Biochem. Bioph}>s Res 
Commun. 136:582-589, 1986. 

Rifkind, A. B. (with Canga, L., and Levi, R. ), Heart as a target organ in 2, 3, 7 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 
toxicity: Decreased ^-adrenergic responsiveness and evidence of increased intracellular calcium. 
Proc Natl Acad. Sci U.S.A 85:905-909, 1987 

Sirotnak, E M. ( with Jacobsen, D. M., and Yang, C. H. ), Alteration of folate analogue transport following in- 
duced maturation of HL-60 leukemia cells. Early decline in mediated influx, relationship to commit- 
ment, and functional dissociation of entry and exit routes./. Biol Chem. 261 : 11150- 11155, 1986. 

Sirotnak, E M. (with Barrueco, J. R , Jacobsen, D. M., Chang, C. H., and Brockman, R. W. ), Proposed mecha- 
nism of therapeutic selectivity for 9-P-D-arabinofuranosyl-2-fluro-adenine against murine leukemia 
based upon lower capacities for transport and phosphorylating in proliferative intestinal epithelum 
compared to tumor cells. Cancer Res 47:700-706, 1987 

Szeto, H. (with Zhu, Y. S., Amione, J., and Clare, S. ), Prenatal morphine exposure and sleep-wake disturb- 
ances in the fetus. Sleep 11: 12 1 - 130, 1988. 

Szeto, H. (with Zhu, Y. S., Umans, J. G., Dwyer, G., Clare, S., and Amione, J. ), Dual action of morphine on fetal 
breathing movements./. Pharmacol Exp. Ther 245:1-6, 1988. 

Watanabe, K. A. (with Schinazi, R. E, Fox, J. J., and Nahmias, A.J. ), Activities of l-(2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-P-D-ara- 
binofuranosyl )-5-iodocytosine and its metabolites against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in cell 
culture and in mice infected intracerebrally with herpes simplex virus type 2. Antimicrobial 
Agents and Chemotherapy 29:11-^^. 1986. 

Watanabe, K. A. (with Su, T. L., Huang, J. T, Burchenal,J. H., and Fox, J. J.), Synthesis and biological activities 
of 5-diazo analogues of aminopterin and folic acid./. Med. Chem. 29:709—715, 1986. 



42 



Physiology and Biophysics 



Faculty 



Olaf S. Andersen 
Ellen Townes-Anderson 
Rodney E. Bigler 
WalterW. Y.Chan* 
Colin Fell 
Daniel Gardner 
Marvin C. Gershengorn 
Bernice Grafstein 
Roger L. Greif (Emeritus) 
Kwang-Jin Kim 
Chin Ok Lee 
Roberto Levi* 



Chiann-Tso Lin 
Martin Lipkin 
Thomas Maack 
Lawrence Palmer 
Thomas G. Pickering 
Enrique M. Rabellino 
Barbara Rayson 
John P Reeves 
John L. Stephenson 
Bernd W. Urban 
Alan M. Weinstein 
Erich E. Windhager 



* Members of the Program in Pharmacolog>: For representative bibliography, see 
Pharmacology 

Research Activities 

Dr. Windhager's studies are aimed at the elucidation of the mechanisms of ion and wa- 
ter transport by renal epithelial cells. The techniques used in Dr. Windhager's labora- 
tory include: isolated perfused renal tubule segments, intracellular measurement of 
ions by ion selective electrodes, electrophysiological techniques, isolated membrane 
techniques and renal micropuncture methods. Current work centers on the role of 
cytosolic calcium ions as regulators of ion and water transport in proximal tubules 
and collecting ducts of the kidney. Dr. Lin is collaborating with Dr. Windhager. 

Dr Grafstein investigates nerve regeneration and transport of material in nerve 
axons. She is currently studying regeneration of goldfish optic nerve. Some of the con- 
clusions reached in recent work are: Phosphorylation of axonally transported pro- 
teins is an important function in regeneration; block of physiological activity impairs 
regeneration by interfering with axonal transport of glycosylated constituents. Dr. 
Grafstein's laboratory uses the following techniques, among others: isotope tracer 
studies, electronmicroscopy high resolution autoradiography, and 2-dimensional gel 
electrophoresis. 

Dr Maack's studies are directed at the elucidation of the quantitative aspects and 
mechanisms of renal processing and actions of circulating proteins and peptide- 
hormones. The main findings in this regard are that the uptake of proteins by proxi- 
mal tubular cells is a high capacity-low affinity selective endocytic transport process. 
Disposal of absorbed protein is also a selective process which depends on an appro- 
priate acid pH of lysosomes. The renal processing of low molecular weight proteins 
and peptide hormones accounts for a major fraction of the plasma turnover of these 
substances. The results of these studies permitted a better understanding of the 
pathophysiology of proteinurias and hormonal disturbances in renal diseases. More 



43 



recent studies deal with the renal processing and actions of atrial natriuretic factor, 
a novel hormone secreted by the heart which decreases blood pressure, regulates 
kidney function and increases salt excretion. The techniques used in Dr. Maack's 
laboratory include isolated perfused rat kidney, isolated tubule segments, cell cul- 
ture, receptor-hormone interactions and general biochemical and physiological 
techniques. 

Dr. Andersen is interested in the mechanisms by which ions cross membranes. 
His studies entail analysis of permeability characteristics of lipid bilayers, with em- 
phasis on the physical and chemical properties of proteins which serve as channel 
formers. The emphasis of the present work is on structure-function studies of mem- 
brane channels using site-specific amino acid substitutions, and on covalent modifica- 
tion of voltage-dependent sodium channels using group specific reagents. Techniques 
used in Dr. Andersen's laboratory include: single channel analysis, electrophysiologi- 
cal measurements, physico-chemical analysis, and computer simulations. 

Dr Stephenson is interested in theoretical aspects of transport in biological sys- 
tems. Much of his recent research centers on transport of water and electrolytes in 
epithelia and in the kidney. One group of current studies focuses on the relation of 
medullary concentration gradients and the osmolality of final urine in the mammalian 
kidney to tubular and vascular permeabilities, flows, and architecture. A second proj- 
ect is to develop a mathematical model of electrolyte transport in the whole kidney, 
which includes electrolytes (Na, K, CI, HCO^, H,PO„ H), glucose urea, protein os- 
motic forces, hydrostatic pressure, and electrical potential. Approaches to these prob- 
lems include both computer simulation and the development and theoretical analysis 
of mathematical models. 

Dr Gershengorn's laboratory focuses on the understanding of hormonal regula- 
tion of cellular secretion. In particular, the stimulation of the anterior pituitary gland's 
secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by thyrotropin-releasing hor- 
mone is under study. Research is now centered on the inositol lipid-calcium-protein 
kinase C pathway for signal transduction by TRH. 

Dr Pickering s main area of research is concerned with development of im- 
proved methods for the noninvasive measurement of blood pressure. First, he is using 
ambulatory monitoring techniques to learn more about the causes of blood pressure 
variability in normal and hypertensive subjects. This work has shown that most of the 
observed circadian rhythm of blood pressure can be accounted for by changes of ac- 
tivity. Second, he is analyzing the causes and origins of Korotkoff sounds with a view 
to the development of a new technique for blood pressure measurement. 

Dr Fell studies the reactivity to drugs and other stimuli of microvessels in rat and 
rabbit ears and rat mesentery, using the technique of ultravital microscopy. The tech- 
nique has been applied to studies of spontaneous vasomotion in rabbit ear arteries, 
and to the investigation of the effects of atrial natriuretic factor on vasoconstriction 
responses of rat mesenteric arteries. 

Dr Gardner's laboratory studies how neurons use chemical synaptic transmis- 
sion to communicate with one another. He is concerned with the biophysics of synap- 
tic transmission, as well as the properties of neuronal networks. Recent discoveries 
were: 1 ) choline activates inhibitory acetylcholine receptors of Aplysia buccal gan- 
glia, and 2 ) dual-function excitatory-inhibitory synapses coordinate the two phases of 
their postsynaptic potentials by a voltage-dependent change in duration. Techniques 
used by Dr Gardner include electrophysiological voltage- and patch-clamping, com- 
puter data acquisition and analysis, and artificial intelligence methods for neuronal 
modeling. 



44 



Dr. Kim studies the electrophysiology^ of pulmonary epithelium (especially the 
alveolar epithelial barrier). He also investigates macromolecule ( albumin ) transport 
across the alveolar epithelial barrier. 

Dr. Lee investigates ionic mechanisms underlying changes in contractile force of 
cardiac muscle and ion transport across cardiac cell membrane. He recently demon- 
strated that cardiac glycosides increase cardiac muscle contractility by changing in- 
tracellular activities of sodium and calcium ions. Techniques used in Dr. Lee's labora- 
tory include: isolated cardiac Purkinje fibers and intracellular recordings with ion 
selective electrodes ( Na, H and Ca). 

Dr Palmer's research focuses on the mechanism of transepithelial Na reabsorp- 
tion by tight epithelia, and the control of this process by hormones and other factors. 
The nature of the transport system facilitating sodium movement across the apical 
membrane of epithelial cells is being elucidated using the toad urinary bladder and ' 
the mammalian cortical collecting tubule as a model epithelia. Techniques used in Dr. 
Palmer's laboratory include: patch-clamping, current-voltage analysis, and flux ratio 
analysis. 

Dr Rahellino's research interests are primarily related to the study of the several 
cellular and molecular processes involved during the acquisition of functional com- 
petence by differentiating blood cells. In past studies he has investigated in the 
lymphoid, myeloid nd megakaryocytic series, the phenotypic evolution of developing 
marrow cells using monoclonal antibody technolog)' and flow cytometry Studies are 
in progress to investigate protein synthesis, cell DNA distribution and synthesis, as 
well as RNA accumulation in developing megakaryocytes. Also being studied are the 
expression and changes of specific protein genes throughout megakaryocytopoiesis 
using cDNA probes for different alpha granule proteins. 

Dr Reeves' laboratory research is directed toward studying the activity of the 
sodium-calcium exchange system in membrane vesicles prepared from the plasma 
membranes (sarcolemmas) of heart cells. The sodium-calcium exchange system is a 
carrier-mediated transport process which directly couples the transmembrane move- 
ment of calcium ions to the movement of sodium ions in the opposite direction. It is 
thought to play an important role in regulating the force of contraction of cardiac 
muscle. Previous work has included characterizing the stoichiometry, kinetics and 
regulation of this transport process, (.urrent efforts are done to identify and purify 
the membrane protein responsible for this activity. 

Dr Rayson's research activities center on the investigation of the regulation of 
Na-K/ATPase (Na pump) in kidney cells. Recent discoveries include the finding that 
intracellular Na levels regulate the number of active Na-K/ATPase enzyme sites in 
outer medullary tubular segments of the kidney. Current research is directed at the 
analysis of the cellular mechanisms involved. Techniques used in Dr. Rayson's labora- 
tory include: superfusion of tubular segments of the kidney, protein purification, 
pulse-chase and in vitro translation experiments. 

Dr Urban studies the molecular actions of general anesthetics on membrane ion 
channels. He is investigating the mechanisms by which anesthetics change sodium 
and potassium currents in nerves (squid giant axon) and which effects anesthetics 
have on single sodium channels ( in lipid bilayer systems ). Techniques used in Dr. 
Urban 's laboratory include: voltage-clamp, electrophysiological techniques and lipid 
bilayers. 

Dr Weinstein is interested in the theory of solute and water transport across epi- 
thelia and developing a mathematical model of proximal tubular fimction using com- 
puter techniques. 



45 



Recent Publications 



Andersen, O. S. (with Koeppe, II, R. E., Durkin, J. T, and Mazet, J.-L. ), Structure-function studies on linear 
gramicidins: Site-specific modifications in a membrane channel. In: Ion Transport Through Mem- 
branes, cd. K. Yagi and B. Pullman. Academic Press, Tokyo, pp. 295-314, 1987 

Andersen, (). S. (with Green, W. N., and Weiss, L. B. ), Batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in planar 
lipid bilayers. Characterization of saxitoxin- and tetrodotoxin-induced channel closures./ Gen. 
Physiol. 89:823-903, 1987. 

Bigler R. E. (with Sacks, W, Hammer B., Cowburn, D., Sacks, S., Fleischer, A., Zanzonico, P B., Badalamenti, 
A., and Hennessy, M. ), The use of "C-glucose and NMR to study cerebral carbohydrate metabolism 
in vivo in the rate and the Rhesus monkey. In: PET and NMR: Neu^ Perspectives in Neuroimaging 
and in Clinical Neurochemistry\ Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, pp. 283-302, 1986. 

Bigler, R. E. (with Welt, S.. Mattes, M. J., Grando, R., Thomson, T M.. Leonard. R. W., Zanzonico, P B., Yeh, S., 
Oettgen, H. E, and Old, L. J. ). Monoclonal antibody to an intracellular antigen images human mela- 
noma transplants in nu/nu mice. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci U.S. A 84:4200-4204, 1987 

Gardner, D., Variations in amplitude and time course of inhibitory postsynaptic currents./ Neurophysiol. 
56:1424-1438,1986. 

Gardner D., A test for modulation of synaptic efficacy by induced membrane potential variance. Brain Res. 
Bulletin 21(3 ):( in press ), 1988. 

Gershengorn, M. C. (with Oron, Y, Gillo, B., and Straub, R. E.), Mechanism of membrane electrical response 
to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in Xenopus oocytes injected with GH^ pituitary cell messenger 
ribonucleic acid. Molec. Endocrinol 1:918—925, 1987. 

Gershengorn, M. C. (with Oron, Y, Straub, R. E., and Traktman, P), Decreased TRH receptor mRNA activity 
precedes homologous downregulation: Assay in oocytes. Science 238: 1406— 1408, 1987. 

Grafstein, B. (with Perry, G. W, and Burmeister, D. W), Fast axonally transported proteins in regenerating 
goldfish optic axons./ Neurosci 7:792-806, 1987 

Grafstein, B. (with Larrivee, D. C. ), Phosphorylation of proteins in normal and regenerating goldfish optic 
nerve./ Neurochem. 49:1747- 1757, 1987 

Kim, Kwang-Jin (with Crandall, E. D., and Goodman. B. E. ), Active transport and permeability properties of 
the alveolar epithelium in the lung. In: Acute Lung Injury: Pathogenesis of Adult Respiratory Dis- 
tress Syndrome, ed. H. Kazemi, A. L. Hyman. and P J. Kadowitz. PSG Publishing Company, Littleton, 
MA, pp. 45-63. 1986. 

Kim, Kwang-Jin (with Goodman, B. E., and Crandall, E. D. ), Evidence for active sodium transport across al- 
veolar epithelium of isolated rat lung./. Appl Physiol 62(6):2460-2466, 1987 

Lee, C. O., (with Im, W B., and Sonn, J. K ), Intracellular sodium ion activity: Reliable measurement and 
stimulation-induced change in cardiac Purkinje fibers. Can. J. Physiol Pharmacol 65:954-962, 
1987 

Lee, C. O., Measurement of cytosolic calcium: Ion-selective microelectrodes. Mineral and Electrolyte 
Metabol 14:15-21, 1988. 

Lipkin, M., Proliferation and differentiation of normal and diseased gastrointestinal cells. In: Physiology of 
the Gastrointestinal Tract, 2nd Edition, ed. L. R. Johnson, Raven Press, New York, pp. 255-284, 
1987 

Lipkin, M., Biomarkers of increased susceptibility of gastrointestinal cancer: New application to studies of 
cancer prevention in human subjects. Perspectives in cancer research. Cancer Res. 48:235-245, 
1988. 

Maack, T (with Atlas, S. A.), Effects of atrial natriuretic factor on the kidney and the renin-angiotensin-aldos- 
terone system. In: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, Vol. 16, Atrial Natri- 
uretic Factor, ed. M. Rosenblatt, and J. W.Jacobs, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 107- 143, 1987 

Maack, T. (with Suzuki, M., Almeida, F A., Nussenzveig, D., Scarborough, R. M., McEnroe, G. A., and Lewicki, 
J. A. ), Physiological role of^ilent receptors of atrial natriuretic factor Science 238:675-678, '987 

Palmer, L. G., Ion selectivity of epithelial Na channels. (Topical Review. ) /. Membr Biol 96:97- 106, 1987 

Palmer, L. G. (with Frindt, G. ), Effects of cell Ca and pH on Na channels from rat cortical collecting tubule. 
Am. J. Physiol 253 (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol. 22):F333-F339, 1987 



46 



Pickering, T G. (with Sos. T. A., Saddekni, S., Rozenblit, G.James, G. D., Orenstein, A., Helseth, G. and Lar- 
agh, J. H. ), Renal angioplasty in patients with azotaemia and renovascular hypertension./ Hyperten 
5«>«4(6):S667-S669, 1986. 

Pickering, T. G. (with James, G. D., Boddie, C., Harshfield, G. A., Blank, S., and Laragh, J. H. ), How common is 
white coat hypertensionP/.AMA 259:225-228, 1988. 

Rabellino, E. M. (with Levene, R. B., Lamaziere J.-M. D., Broxmeyer, H. E., and Lu, L. ), Human mega- 
karyocytes. V Changes in the phenotypic profile of differentiating megakaryocytes./. Exp. Med. 
161:457-474,1985. 

Rabellino, E. M. (with Levene, R. B., Williams, N. T, and Lamaziere, J.-M. D. ), Human megakaryocytes. IV. 

Growth and characterization of clonable megakaryocyte progenitors in agar Exp. Hematol. 15:181 - 
189, 1987 

Reeves, J. P (with Poronnik, P), Modulation of Na-(^a exchange in sarcolemmal vesicles by intravesicular Ca 
Am. J. Physiol. 252:C17-C23, 1987 

Reeves, J. P ( with Joo, C. ), Site density' of the Na-Ca exchange carrier in reconstituted vesicles from bovine 
cardiac sarcolemma./. Biol. Chem. 263:2309-2315, 1988. 

Stephenson,J. L, Models of the urinary concentrating mechanism. Kidney Inti 31:648—661, 1987. 

Stephenson, J. L. (with Zhang, Y. Eftekhari, A., and Tewarson, R. ), Electrolyte transport in a central core 
model of the renal medulla. Am. J. Physiol 253 (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol. 22 ):F982-F997 
1987 

Tbwnes-Anderson, E. (with Vogt, B. A., and Burns, D. L. ), Dissociated cingulate cortical neurons: Morphol- 
ogy and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding properties./. Neurosci 7:959-971, 1987 

Townes- Anderson, E. (with Dacheux, R. F, and Ravlola, E. ), Rod photoreceptors dissociated from the adult 
rabbit retina./ .V«/ro5C/. 8:320-331, 1988. 

Urban, B. W. (with Haydon, D. A. ), The action of halogenated ethers on the ionic currents of the squid giant 
axon. Proc. Rcry. Soc, Land. B. 231:13-26, 198^ 

Urban, B. W. (with Recio-Pinto, E., Duch, D. S., and Levinson, S. R. ), Purified and unpurified sodium channels 
from eel electroplax in planar lipid bilayers./. Geri. Physiol 90:375 — 395, 1987. 

Weinstein, A. M., Osmotic diuresis in a mathematical model of the rat proximal tubule. Am. J. Physiol 
250:F874-F884, 1986. 

Weinstein, A. M., Modeling the proximal tubule: (complications of the paracellular pathway Am. J. Physiol 
254.F297-F305, 1988. 

Windhager E. E. (with Lorenzen, M., Frindt. Ci., and Taylor A. ), Quinidine effect on hydroosmotic response 
of collecting tubules to vasopressin and cAMP Am. J. Physiol 252 (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol. 
21 ):F1103-F1111, 1987 

Windhager, E. E. (with Frindt, G., and Jones, S. M. ), Effect of peritubular [Ca] or ionomycin on hydroosmotic 
response of CCTs to ADH or cAMP Am. J. Physiol 254 (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol. 23):F240- 
F253, 1988. 



47 



Requirements and Course 
Offerings 



Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and 
Manhattan Skyline, as seen from Cornell Medical 
College 



50 



Admission 

Applications 

For admission to the Graduate School of Med- 
ical Sciences an applicant must ( 1 ) have a bac- 
calaureate degree or the equivalent from a 
college or university of recognized standing, 
(2 ) have adequate preparation in the chosen 
field of study, and ( 3 ) show promise of ability' 
to pursue advanced study and research, as 
judged by his or her previous record. 

Inquiries about graduate study should be 
addressed to the Associate Dean of the Gradu- 
ate School of Medical Sciences, 1300 York Av- 
enue, New York, NY 1002 1. 

Candidates may be admitted in September, 
February, or July, although places in the gradu- 
ate program for February and July may not be 
available because of prior commitments to ap- 
plicants for September admission. Applicants 
for February or July admission should corre- 
spond directly with the respective Program 
Director regarding the availabilitA' of places. 

Application material must be completed 
and returned to the Office of the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences together with ( 1 ) 
official transcripts of records from all colleges 
and universities attended, ( 2 ) a statement of 
purpose of graduate study, and ( 3 ) two letters 
of recommendation from individuals in aca- 
demic positions who know the applicant 
professionally. In addition, scores from the 
Graduate Record Examinations ( GRE ) are re- 
quired to aid in the evaluation of an applicant. 
Application for taking the Aptitude (Verbal, 
Quantitative, and Analytical ) Test and the Ad- 
vanced Test of the GRE, must be made di- 
rectly to the Educational Testing Service, 
Graduate Record Examinations, Box 955, 
Princeton, NJ 08541. 

The proper Institution Code Number to 
use in your GRE application for the Cornell 
University Graduate School of Medical Sci- 
ences (New York City ) is R 2 119-6. 

Applications for September or July admis- 
sion and all credentials, including official 
transcripts of records from all colleges and 
universities attended, must be received by 
the deadline of February 1. Because GRE 
scores are an important part of the applica- 
tion it is of decided advantage to the appli- 
cant, to submit these scores by the February 1 
deadline. 

Applications and credentials for February 
admission must be received by November 1. 



Application fee. A nonrefijndable charge 
of S35 is made for filing an application for 
admission. 

The completed application and all support- 
ing documents are initially screened by the 
credentials committee of the program to 
which the student is applying. Applicants who 
are considered potentially acceptable are 
usually called for a personal interview. At the 
time of interview, after discussing his or her 
interests with the members of the Program, 
the applicant may tentatively select a major 
sponsor. If accepted by the Program, an appli- 
cation is fon\arded to the Credentials Review 
Committee and then to the Dean for final de- 
cision. A student is formally notified of ac- 
ceptance for study in the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences by a letter from the Dean. 
An applicant accepted for admission is re- 
quested to inform the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences of her or his plan to either 
accept or refuse the offer of admission within 
one month after the Dean's acceptance letter 
has been received. 

It is the policy of Cornell University to ac- 
tively support equality of educational and 
employment opportunit}'. No person shall be 
denied admission to any educational program 
or activity or be denied employment on the 
basis of any legally prohibited discrimination 
involving, but not limited to, such factors as 
race, color, creed, religion, national or ethnic 
origin, sex, age, or handicap. The University is 
committed to the maintenance of affirmative 
action programs which will assure the contin- 
uation of such equalit}' of opportunity-. 

Admission policies are also in conformity 
with the policy of New York State in regard to 
the American ideal of equality of opportunity 
as embodied in the Education Practices Act. 

Categories 

An applicant is accepted by the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences ( 1 ) as a degree 
candidate for the M.S. or Ph.D., or ( 2 ) as a pro- 
visional candidate. 

Provisional candidacy provides opportu- 
nity for a prospective degree candidate, 
whose educational preparation is difficult to 
evaluate, to begin graduate studies. On the ba- 
sis of the record of accomplishment in the 
first half of the academic year, the adviser or 



52 



temporary Special Committee of a provisional 
candidate may recommend to the Dean that 
( 1 ) provisional candidacy be changed to de- 
gree candidacy, ( 2 ) provisional candidacy be 
continued for the remainder of the academic 
year, or ( 3 ) provisional candidacy be termi- 
nated. A maximum of one academic year in 
the status of provisional candidacy is permit- 
ted and credit of a maximum of one residence 
unit may be allowed on petition, provided 
there is convincing evidence that perform- 
ance has been of the same quality as that re- 
quired of degree candidates. 

Special Students 

Special students are students who are not de- 
gree candidates in either the Ciraduate School 
of Medical Sciences or the Medical Cx)llege 
and who are given permission by the respec- 
tive dean to take courses at either school. 
Special students must be degree candidates at 
other institutions and the courses taken at 
Cornell must be essential to their degree pro- 
grams and are not offered by the institutions 
at which they are matriculated as degree can- 
didates as certified by the institutions. Enroll- 
ment as a special student is not intended as 
preparation for admission to degree programs 
at Cornell or elsewhere. 

in the case of the (iraduate School of Medi- 
cal Sciences, special students are accepted 
only with the approval of the appropriate Pro- 
gram Director Special students must demon- 
strate special qualifications in terms of prepa- 
ration and abilit}'. They must register with the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences or in the 
Medical (>ollege and must pay all tuition and 
fees before being permitted to attend lectures 
or laboratory sessions. Tuition is computed on 
the basis of the ratio of course hours taken to 
the total hours of instruction tor the academic 
year ( 33 weeks of 40 hours ). There is a regis- 
tration fee of $35. 



Degree Requirements 

Major and Minor Programs 

A candidate for the degree of Master of Sci- 
ence is required to register for study in one 
major and one minor program. Each program 
decides whether the Special Committee of a 
candidate for the Ph.D. degree must have two 
or three programs represented. Accordingly, a 
candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philoso- 



phy is required to register for study in one 
major and one or two minor programs. At 
least one of the minors must be outside the 
area of the major program. 

The Special Committee 

The general degree requirements of the Grad- 
uate School of Medical Sciences are minimal 
in order to give maximum flexibility in choos- 
ing a desirable program of study The stu- 
dent's program is determined with the aid 
and direction of a Special Committee, consist- 
ing of at least three faculty members chosen 
by the student from those programs that best 
fit his or her areas of interest. Satisfactory pro- 
gress toward a degree is judged by the com- 
mittee rather than by arbitrary standards im- 
posed by the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences. There are no regulations of the Fac- 
ulty of the Ciraduate School of Medical Sci- 
ences governing the specific content of in- 
struction, courses, or grades to which the 
Special (>ommittee must subscribe, except 
those imposed by the programs. The commit- 
tee is primarily responsible for the candidate's 
development as an independent scholar and 
scientist. 

No later than four weeks after enrollment, a 
candidate must file a statement of the major 
and minor programs elected for study, after 
which the student must choose faculty mem- 
bers to represent the programs and to serve 
on a Special Committee. The major sponsor 
usually advises the student concerning the 
other selections and chairs the committee. At 
least one member of the committee must rep- 
resent a program different from the candi- 
date's major program. Members may agree to 
serve temporarily during the candidate's first 
year of residence until the candidate has had 
the opportunity' to become acquainted with 
areas of research in the programs of his or her 
choice. On completion of this year of resi- 
dence, a permanent Special Committee will 
be formed, the membership of which can be 
changed with agreement of all members of 
the old and newly formed committees and the 
approval of the Dean. The members of the 
Special Committee decide on the student's 
program of study and research. They judge 
whether progress toward a degree is satisfac- 
tory and prepare term reports on the candi- 
date for submission to the Dean. The mem- 
bers of the committee serve on all the 
candidate's examining committees and they 
approve his or her thesis. 



53 



Registration and Course 
Grades 

No student in the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences may double-register for an advanced 
general or professional degree with any other 
school or college except the Cornell Univer- 
sity Medical College. 

At the beginning of each term, students are 
required to register with the Office of the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences and to 
file a registration of courses form indicating 
all courses they will take. A fee of SIO is 
charged for late registration. 

At the beginning of each course in which 
the student is enrolling, the student will com- 
plete a separate course registration form for 
the instructor All courses for which the stu- 
dent registers for credit will be entered in the 
official record. Grades of graduate students 
are reported as: Excellent ( E ), Satisfactory ( S ), 
Unsatisfactory ( U ), Incomplete ( I ), Absent 
(Abs. ), or Unofficially VC'ithdrawn ). A grade 
of Incomplete or Absent cannot be changed 
later than one term following the one in 
which the course was taken. 

Registration for the summer is required of 
graduate students who will be engaged in 
research. 

Residence 

The Facult}- of the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences regards study in residence as essen- 
tial. Each candidate for an advanced general 
degree is expected to complete the residence 
requirements with reasonable continuity. A 
student must register each term from the 
time of his or her first registration in the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences until the 
student either withdraws or completes a de- 
gree ( unless a leave of absence has been 
granted). Full-time study for one-half aca- 
demic year with satisfactory accomplishment 
constitutes one residence unit. Two units of 
residence are the minimal requirement for 
the master's degree and six units are the mini- 
mum for the doctoral degree. However the 
time necessary to obtain the degree generally 
exceeds the minimal requirements. A candi- 
date for the Ph.D. degree must spend two of 
the last four units of required residence in 
successive terms on the New York Cirv' or the 
Ithaca campus of Cornell I'niversirv: No more 
than seven years may intervene between the 
time of first registration and the completion of 
all requirements for the doctoral degree. A 
student must complete all requirements for 
the master's degree in four years. 



Part-time graduate study, if it is necessi- 
tated by off-campus employment noncontri- 
butory to the major program of study, is not 
encouraged. Requests for part-time study 
must be reviewed by the Executive Commit- 
tee. If permission is granted for part-time 
study, the student must be in residence at 
least half-time. 

Transfer of Residence Credit 

No residence credit will be granted for study 
outside the Graduate School of Medical Sci- 
ences to fulfill the requirements of the M.S. 
degree. No commitment can be made about 
granting residence credit toward the Ph.D. re- 
quirements for previous study in another 
graduate school until after the candidate has 
entered into residence at the Graduate School 
of Medical Sciences. At that time, the stu- 
dent's Special Committee may recommend 
acceptance of study outside the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences to the Executive 
Committee, which will determine the num- 
ber of residence units to be awarded. No 
credit can be transferred for study under- 
taken as an undergraduate or as a special stu- 
dent even in courses designed for graduate 
students. 

A student who has satisfactorily completed 
two or more academic years of study toward 
the degree of M.D. at the Cornell Universit\' 
Medical College, or another accredited medi- 
cal school in the United States with a curricu- 
lum equivalent to that of the Cornell Univer- 
sity Medical College, may transfer a maximum 
of tw o units of residence credit after passing 
an evaluation examination administered by a 
committee appointed by the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences. 

Summer Research 

Registration is required for the summer re- 
search term whether or not this effort will be 
credited toward residence unit accumulation. 
Students registered for summer research pay 
prorated tuition only if they are obtaining res- 
idence credit. However, no degree candidate 
is eligible for more than two residence units 
in any period of twelve consecutive months. 

Study In Absentia 

A candidate for the degree of Doctor of Phi- 
losophy may petition for permission to earn 
residence units for study away from Cornell 
University' while regularly registered in the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences. A candi- 



54 



date to whom this privilege has been granted, 
must register as a Candidate in absentia and 
may work temporarily under the immediate 
supervision of an individual designated by his 
or her Special Committee although the candi- 
date's program will continue to be directed 
by the Committee. For study in absentia, not 
more than two residence units may be earned 
toward fulftllment of the minimal residence 
requirements for the Ph.D. degree. 

Leave of Absence 

A candidate who finds it necessary to inter- 
rupt the continuity of his or her residence 
must petition the Dean for an official leave of 
absence. This written petition must specify 
the term of absence, state the reason for the 
requested leave of absence, and be approved 
by the student's Special Committee. 

A student who will not be in residence but 
will return to the Ciraduate School of Medical 
Sciences to present and defend a thesis at the 
final examination, having completed all re- 
quirements for a degree except for the final 
examination, must petition for a leave of 
absence. 

Examinations 

Three examinations are required by the Fac- 
ulty of the Graduate School of Medical Sci- 
ences: ( 1 ) Final Examination for the M.S. de- 
gree, ( 2 ) Examination for Admission to 
Doctoral Candidacy and ( 3 ) Final Examina- 
tion for the Ph.D. degree. Examinations are 
administered by an Examining (x)mmittee 
consisting of a chairperson appointed by the 
Dean, the members of the candidate's Special 
Committee, and, in the case of the Admission 
to Doctoral Candidacy Examination, one ad- 
ditional member selected from the Faculty of 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences or of 
other institutions. In addition to these exami- 
nations, the candidate's major program may 
require a qualify ing examination as part of its 
evaluation of the candidate after two units of 
residence have been completed. 

For the M.S. degree. The Final Examination 
may be oral or both oral and written. 

For the Ph.D. degree: The Admission to 
Doctoral Candidacy Examination is both oral 
and written and certifies that the student is el- 
igible to present a thesis to the Faculty' of the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences. The ex- 
amination should be taken after course work 
is largely finished but before significant thesis 
research has begun. Accordingly, the usual 
examination time will be at the end of the 



second year of residence. The examination 
may not be taken until t^o units of residence 
credit have been accumulated and a mini- 
mum of two units of residence credit is re- 
quired after passing this examination before 
the final examination can be scheduled. The 
final examination for the Ph.D. degree is an 
oral defense of the candidate's thesis. It must 
be passed within four years after completion 
of the required residence units, or within 
seven years from the date of first registration, 
whichever is earlier. 

Foreign Language 
Requirements 

Each program of study has its own foreign 
language requirements. The student's Special 
Committee may require knowledge of foreign 
languages beyond the requirements of the 
programs listed in this catalog. 

Arrangements tor a foreign language exami- 
nation will be made on application to the Of- 
fice of the Dean. As an alternative to this ex- 
amination, the candidate may demonstrate 
proficiency by having passed the reading part 
of the language qualification tests adminis- 
tered by the College Entrance Examination 
Board. 

Thesis 

A principal requirement for both the M.S. and 
the Ph.D. degrees is the presentation of a the- 
sis constituting an imaginative contribution 
to knowledge. Ordinarily, the thesis is written 
on a research topic in the candidate's major 
field of study, under the direction of the chair- 
person of his or her Special Committee. The 
time between the thesis defense and submis- 
sion of the thesis in its final form is limited to 
60 days. The faculty requires that the Ph.D. 
thesis be published in abstract and be re- 
corded on microfilm. 



Tuition and Fees 

Tuition 

Tuition for a student regularly matriculated in 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences is 
S12,150 for the academic year 1988-89 and is 
payable in two equal parts, the first of which 
is due at initial registration. Tuition includes 
fees for matriculation, hospitalization insur- 
ance, graduation, and miscellaneous thesis 
expenses. 



55 



Students in the Ph.D.-M.D. program (see p. 
4) will be charged Medical College tuition 
( $17, 100 per annum ) while they are enrolled 
in medical school. 

A student who is to receive partial resi- 
dence credit (see p. 54 ) because of employ- 
ment should apply for proration of tuition on 
forms obtainable at the Office of the Dean. 



Other Fees 

In Absentia A student registered in absen- 
tia pays a fee of $200 each term and may con- 
tinue hospitalization insurance by payment of 
the annual premium directly to the Student 
Accounting Office. If students in absentia 
take advantage of local privileges, such as the 
use of the library, desk space. Student Health 
Service, and Cornell housing, the fee is $400 
per semester. The latter fee also covers hospi- 
talization insurance. 



Leave of Absence Students on leave of ab- 
sence will be required to pay an active-file fee 
of $200 for each semester, up to a maximum 
of six semesters, during which they are not 
registered with the Graduate School. This fee 
will not be subject to finance charges but 
must be paid before the student can receive 
an advanced degree. Petition for waiver of 
this fee will be considered for students who 
have not completed the required number of 
residence units. 



Candidate for Degree Only A graduate 
student who has previously fulfilled all other 
degree requirements, who has been granted a 
leave of absence, and then returns to the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences to pre- 
sent a thesis and to take the final examination 
must register as a Candidate for Degree Only 
and pay a fee of $35. 

Any individual who owes money to the 
University will not be allowed to register or 
reregister in the University receive a tran- 
script of his or her record, have his or her ac- 
ademic credits certified, be granted a leave of 
absence, have a degree conferred and will 
not be eligible for health services and subsi- 
dized housing. 

The amount, time, and manner of payment 
of tuition, fees, or other charges may he 
changed at any time without notice. 



Refunds 

Part of the personally paid tuition will be re- 
funded if the student obtains official certifica- 
tion of leave of absence or withdrawal from 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences dur- 
ing the semester. Students who terminate 
their registration during a regular term in this 
manner will be charged tuition from the reg- 
istration day to the effective date of the certif- 
icate as follows: first week, 10 percent; second 
week, 20 percent; third week, 30 percent; 
fourth week, 40 percent; fifth week, 60 per- 
cent; sixth week, 80 percent; seventh week, 
100 percent. No charge will be made if the ef- 
fective date of leave or withdrawal is within 
the first six days of the term, including regis- 
tration day. 

Financial Assistance 

All applicants to the Graduate School are re- 
quested to submit a Graduate and Profes- 
sional School Financial Aid Service (GAPSFAS) 
form providing an estimate of financial need. 
The information will be used in two ways: 
The number of students with documentable 
need will allow the University to obtain maxi- 
mum federal funding for loans and work- 
study purposes, and the specific need of an 
applicant may be used to determine that indi- 
vidual's graduate support. Please obtain the 
necessary form, available at your college or 
university financial aid office and from the Ed- 
ucational Testing Service. File the form with 
the Educational Testing Service, Box 2614, 
Princeton, New Jersey 08541, and request 
that the information be sent to Cornell-Code 
2267. 

Financial assistance is available to qualified 
applicants. Individual fields may offer predoc- 
toral research fellowships, research assistant- 
ships, or teaching assistantships. These posi- 
tions may provide a stipend in addition to 
tuition. Information about these positions 
may be obtained directly from the Program 
Director at the time of application. 

Nationwide competitive predoctoral fel- 
k)wships are available from the National Sci- 
ence Foundation and the National Research 
Council. Information about these fellowships 
should be requested directly from the appro- 
priate governmental agency 

New York State residents are eligible for 
several predoctoral feUowships and the Tui- 
tion Assistance Program, which assists in tui- 
tion payments. Application tbrms may be ob- 



56 



taincd from the New York Higher Education 
Services Corporation, Student Financial Aid 
Section, Tower Building, Empire State Plaza, 
Albany, N\ 12255. 

Several loan programs are available to grad- 
uate students. Under these programs, repay- 
ment of the principal amount of the loan to- 
gether with the interest on the loan may be 
deferred until after graduation. Complete in- 
formation regarding loan programs may be 
obtained from the (iraduate School Office. 

Opportunity for part-time employment is 
often available in departmental research proj- 
ects or other activities. Applications should 
be made directly to individual departments. 

The (iraduate School of Medical Sciences 
participates in the Work-Study Program of 
Cornell University which provides a signifi- 
cant salary contribution for qualified em 
ployed students. 

Scholarships and 
Fellowships 

Full fellowships are provided for graduate stu 
dents by both the Medical (College and Sloan- 
Kettering Divisions of the (iraduate School of 
Medical Sciences. Recipients of this award be- 
come Ph.D. Fellows and will receive a full tui- 
tion scholarship and a stipend covering living 
expenses. 

A number of tuition scholarships are avail- 
able for students in the Medical (College Divi- 
sion who are not covered by one of the above 
fellowships. This scholarship fijnd is adminis- 
tered by the Office of the Dean of the (iradu- 
ate vSchool of Medical Sciences. 

In addition, the following named funds pro- 
vide support for selected students: 

The Vincent Astor Scholarship Fund. 

Funds for tuition assistance are also derived 
from the income from a generous gift by the 
Vincent Astor Foundation to the (iraduate 
School of Medical Sciences and to the Medical 
College. Allocation of these funds for graduate 
student tuition assistance is made at the dis- 
cretion of the Dean of the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences. 

The Harry E. Gould, Sr., Medical and 
Graduate Student Scholarship. This fund 
was established by Mr. (iould's son, Harry E. 
Gould, Jr, in memory of his father, a promi- 
nent business and civic leader in the City of 
New York, who had a long-standing interest in 
medicine. The income from this endowment 
provides financial assistance for students of 
the Medical College and Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences. 



The Mildred and Emil Holland Scholar- 
ship. Income from a gift by the Emil and 
Mildred Holland Philanthropic Fund of the 
Jewish Communal Fund is used to provide tu- 
ition support for an M.D.-Ph.D. student. 

The W. A. Keck Foundation Medical Sci- 
entist Fellowship. This award is derived 
from a generous endowment awarded to Cor- 
nell University Medical College and provides 
support for an M.D.-Ph.D. student. 

The Francis L. Loeb Medical Scientist Fel- 
lowships. These fellowships have been en- 
dowed by a gift from Francis L. Loeb and pro- 
vide support for two M.D.-Ph.D. students 
the Cornell University' Medical College. 

The Frank R. and Blanche A. Mowrer Me- 
morial Fund. Financial assistance is available 
from the income of this fund to one student 
each year enrolled in the Ph.D.-M.D. or M.D.- 
Ph.D. program. 

The Papanicolaou Medical Scientist Fel- 
lowship is fimded by income from a bequest 
from Mary (i. Papanicolaou in memory of her 
husband, Dr (ieorge N. Papanicolaou, and by 
a gift from an anonymous donor to the Cor- 
nell University Medical College. The funds 
provide support for an M.D.-Ph.D. student. 

The Abby Rockefeller Mauze Medical Sci- 
entist Fellowship was established by a gift 
from the Abby Rockefeller Mauze Trust. The 
income provides fellowship support for an 
M.D. Ph.D. student. 

The Surdna Foundation Medical Scientist 
Fellowship was made possible by a generous 
grant to the Medical College by the Surdna 
Foundation. The income from this endow- 
ment provides fellowship support for an M.D.- 
Ph.D. student. 

The Iris L. and Leverett S. Woodworth 
Medical Scientist Fellowship. Funds for the 
support of an M.D.-Ph.D. student are provided 
by the income from a generous gift from Dr. 
Leverett S. Woodworth in his own name and 
in memory of his wife, Iris L. Woodworth. 

Awards and Prizes 

The Julian R. Rachele Prize. The income of 
a fijnd established by Dr. Julian R. Rachele, 
former Dean of the Cornell University Gradu- 
ate School of Medical Sciences, provides for 
an annual prize to be awarded to a candidate 
for the Ph.D. degree for a research paper of 



57 



which the candidate is the sole or the senior 
author 

The prize was shared in 1988 by Rafael Fer- 
nandez-Almonacid, Mark Kenny, and Myung 
Soo Lee. 

The Vincent duVigneaud Prizes for the 

presentation of outstanding papers by stu- 
dents of the Cornell University' Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences at the Annual Vin- 
cent duVigneaud Memorial Research 
Symposium. 

Recipients of these awards in 1988 were 
Elizabeth Evans, Minsen Mok, and Jose 
Walewski. 

The Frank Lappin Horsfall Jr. Award is en- 
dowed by funds provided in memory of Dr 
Horsfall by his many friends and family It is 
continued evidence of his concern for stu- 
dents manifest during his directorship of the 
Sloan-Kettering Division. 

The award is made annually to a student of 
the Sloan-Kettering Division, who in the opin- 
ion of the Committee of the Faculty' of the 
Sloan-Kettering Division, has been most dis- 
tinguished, especially in the Admission to 
Doctoral Candidacy Examination. 

Recipient of the award in 1988 was Michael 
W. Marino. 

The Thesis Prizes are awarded to students 
of the Medical College Division who have pre- 
sented an outstanding thesis during the aca- 
demic year. 

Recipients of these prizes in 1987—88 were 
Mark Underwood and Betsy von Kreuter. 

Student Health Services 

The student Health Plan of Cornell University 
Medical College provides hospitalization and 
major medical insurance for all registered 
graduate students. In addition, the Plan pro- 
vides for ambulatory care at the Student 
Health Service of The New York Hospital- 
Cornell Medical Center. Physicians at the 
Health Service will refer students who re- 
quire specialized care to clinics of the Hospi- 
tal and to attending physicians of the staff. 

The cost {)f medical services provided by 
the Plan are included in the tuition and fee 
structure announced by the (iraduate School 
of Medical Sciences each academic year Stu- 
dents will be issued Plan membership cards 
and will receive courtesy privileges at The 
New York Hospital Pharmacy 

Entering students are requested to have a 
physical examination, chest X-ray and labora- 



tory tests performed by their personal physi- 
cians prior to matriculation. The hours of the 
Personnel Health Service and a complete 
statement of Plan benefits will be provided to 
each graduate student. 

It is recommended that students purchase 
insurance coverage for eligible dependents 
who do not have other insurance available to 
them. Insured dependents are not eligible for 
care at the Student Health Service but they 
will be referred to appropriate members of 
the Hospital staff for medical treatment. 

A student studying in absentia may con- 
tinue hospitalization insurance by payment of 
the annual fees directly to the Student Ac- 
counting Office. 

A student on leave of absence is not eligible 
to receive student health benefits. 

Residence Halls 

F. W. Olin Hall, a student residence, is at 445 
East Sixty-ninth Street directly across from 
the Medical College entrance on York Avenue. 
Olin Hall contains a gymnasium, lounges, and 
245 residence rooms. Each residence room is 
a single bedroom -study but since two rooms 
share a connecting bath, they may be used as 
a suite for two students. The rooms are com- 
pletely furnished. The student housing fee is 
S226 per month. 

Livingston Ferrand Apartments, also lo- 
cated on East Sixty -ninth Street, just beyond 
Olin Hall, have furnished apartments of 1 '/>, 2, 
3, and 4 rooms. Cooking facilities are pro- 
vided in these apartments. Housing fees begin 
at S290 per month (utilities not included). 
These apartments are available to married and 
upper-class students. 

Jacob S. Lasdon House, an apartment resi- 
dence, is located at 420 East Seventieth 
Street. This building contains studio, one- 
bedroom, and two-bedroom apartments and 
two squash courts. Apartments are fully fur- 
nished and include kitchens. Housing fees be- 
gin at S490 per month including utilities. 
Single, first-year students cannot be accom- 
modated in this building. 

Housing in the above facilities is guaranteed 
for a five-year period from the time of first 
enrollment 

The fees listed ftiay be changed at any time 
without previous notice. 



58 



special Programs 

Application to the Medical 
Scientist Training Program 
(M.D.-Ph.D.) 

Sec p. 3 for a description of the program. 
Successful applicants must demonstrate a 
strong undergraduate science preparation, 
and an early commitment to a career combin- 
ing both clinical and laboratory research. 
They must simultaneously satish the separate 
requirements for admission to Cornell Uni- 
versity Medical College and to the Ciraduate 
School of Medical Sciences. 

All documents must be forwarded to the 
Office of Admissions, Cornell University Med- 
ical College, 445 East 69th Street, Seiv York, 
NY 10021. Telephone (212) 4^2-56-73. 

The following items are required, by No- 
vember 30, for an application to be consid- 
ered complete: 

1 . AMCAS application. ( The personal data 
and academic record presented in this ap- 
plication are suitable for evaluation by 
both the medical and graduate schools.) 

2. Supplemental lnfornuiti(m Form. This 
form will be supplied when further infor- 
mation is requested. 

3. Test Scores. MC>AT scores are required; 
GRE scores are optional. If the (iRE is 
taken, please instruct the Educational Test- 
ing Service to forward your scores. 

4. Persomil statemetU. A summary of the ap- 
plicant's background, interests, and rea- 
sons for pursuing the combined program. 

5 . L e Iters of Recom metulaticm. 

a. Statement by the pre-medical advisory 
committee or two letters from members of 
the undergraduate science faculty evaluat- 
ing the applicant's suitabilirv' for a career 
in medicine. 

b. Letters by at least two faculty members 
evaluating the applicant's research 
potential. 

6. Application Fee. After the AM(>AS applica- 
tion is received, a check for S45 is re- 
quested to cover the application process- 
ing fee. 

After screening, selected applicants to the 
program will be invited to visit the Cornell 
Medical Center and meet with members of 
the faculty of the medical and graduate pro- 
grams. These interview visits will be coordi- 
nated by the Medical College Admissions 
Office. 



Application to the Ph.D.- 
M.D. Program 

Applications to this program (see p. 4 for de- 
scription ) are ordinarily made after the com- 
pletion of the first year of study in the Gradu- 
ate School of Medical Sciences, although more 
advanced students may be considered. The 
deadline for application is January 1. 

To apply, the student must submit to the Of- 
fice of the Dean of the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences: 

1 . A completed application for admission 
with advanced standing to Cornell Univer- 
sity Medical College (obtainable from the 
Medical College Admissions Office ). 

2. A plan of graduate study incorporating all 
required course work of the first two years 
of the Medical College curriculum and 
endorsed by the student's Special 
Committee. 

3. Evidence of successftil completion of at 
least two major medical school basic sci- 
ence courses (anatomical sciences, bio- 
chemistry, microbiology, pathology, phar- 
macolog); physiolog}' ). 

4. Two letters of evaluation from faculty of 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 

5 Results of the Medical College Admissions 
Test ( MC:AT ). 

The Office of the Dean of the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences will review the 
student's credentials and make a recommen- 
dation to the Committee on Admissions of 
(.ornell I'niversity Medical Cx)llege. Only ap- 
plicants who are found to be acceptable by 
this committee, after review of the applica- 
tion and personal interviews, can enter the 
Ph.D.-M.D. Program. Final decision will be 
made before June 1. 

Students in this program must meet the fol- 
lowing requirements before admission to the 
third-year clinical curriculum of the Medical 
College: 

1 . Complete all required graduate courses 
and the remainder of the first two years of 
the medical school curriculum. 

2. Pass the Admission to Doctoral Candidacy 
Examination, required by the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences. 

3. Complete the dissertation research; pre- 
sent and successfully defend an original 
thesis at the final examination for the 
Ph.D. degree. 



59 



After satisfactory ftilfillment of the required While registered as a graduate student in 
clinical rotations of the Cornell third-year the Ph D -M.D. Program, the student is sub- 
medical school curriculum and of the re- ject to the tuition schedule of the Graduate 
quired selectives of the fourth-year curricu- School of Medical Sciences. Upon completion 
lum these students may receive credit for of the requirements for the Ph.D. degree, the 
their graduate studies to satisfy the elective student is registered in the Medical College 
requirements of the fourth-year medical and is subject to its tuition schedule, 
school curriculum and will then be recom- 
mended for avv^ard of the M.D. degree by Cor- 
nell University. 




60 



Programs of Study 



Biochemistry 

Graduate Program Chairman 

A. Mtistcr, Department of Biochemistry, 
RcK)m E- 106. Medical College. ( 2 12 ) 4-^2-62 12 

Graduate Program Director 

D. Wellner. Department of Biochemistry, 
Room E-2 19. Medical College. (212) 4^2-6 19'' 

Ciraduate instruction is offered leading to the 
Ph.D. degree. \X ithin the framework of de- 
gree requirements and in consultation with 
the student, the course of study is planned to 
fit the need of the individual. Although formal 
course work is required, emphasis is placed 
on research. Research opportunities exist in 
various areas of biochemistry including enzy- 
molog>. structure and function of proteins 
and nucleic acids, molecular biolog). physical 
biochemistry and the intermediary metabo- 
lism of amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleic 
acids, and lipids. Entering graduate students 
usually work for short periods in several of 
the laboratories of the faculty members of the 
Program before beginning their thesis re- 
search. Students are encouraged to choose 
challenging fundamental research problems 
that are on the frontiers of biochemistry. 

The laboratories of the faculty members 
are equipped with virtually all of the instru- 
ments and facilities required for modern bio- 
chemical research; thus, graduate students 
are instructed in such methodolog> as chro- 
matography countercurrent distribution, ra- 
dioactive and stable isotope techniques, spec- 
trophotometry, electrophoresis, and 
analytical ultracentrifugation. 

Students who undertake graduate study in 
biochemistry must have a sufficiently com- 
prehensive background in chemistry to pur- 
sue the proposed course of study and must 
present evidence of knowledge of biolog); 
general experimental physics, mathematics 
(including differential and integral calculus ). 
Students may remedy deficiencies in these 
areas during the first year of graduate study 
The Graduate Record Examination ( the apti- 
tude test and the advanced test in chemistry) 
is ordinarily required. 



Students who undertake graduate stud> in 
biochemistry must have a sufficiently com- 
prehensive background in chemistry to pur- 
sue the proposed course of study and must 
present evidence of knowledge of biolog>. 
general experimental physics, mathematics 
(including differential and integral calculus). 
Students may remedy deficiencies in these 
areas during the first year of graduate study. 
The Graduate Record Examination ( the apti- 
tude test and the advanced test in chemistry ) 
is ordinarily required. 

The student is required to demonstrate 
proficiency in one modern foreign language 
acceptable to the student's Special Commit- 
tee. Proficiency in a computer programming 
language, as demonstrated by executing a 
meaningful program, may substitute for profi- 
ciency in a foreign language. 

Courses 

Graduate Biochemistry. Offered jointly 
by the faculties of the Medical (x)llege and 
Sloan-Kettering Divisions. Tliis course is de- 
signed to provide the student with a knowl- 
edge of the fundamentals of biochemistry and 
an appreciation of the molecular basis of bio- 
logical phenomena. Ciraduate students in the 
Program in Biochemistry are required to pass 
this course ( or its equivalent ). First, second, 
and third quarters annualK. Dr. Hascheme>er. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Introduction to Research. Laboratory ro 
tations in experimental biochemistry dealing 
with the isolation, synthesis, and analysis of 
substances of biochemical importance ( en- 
zymes, co-enzymes, various metabolites and 
intermediates ). and study of their properties 
by various chemical and physical techniques. 
The student obtains this varied research ex- 
perience by spending approximately two 
months in the laboratory of each of four fa- 
cult} members of his or her choice. For 
incoming graduate students majoring in 
biochemistry. 

Biochemistry Seminars. A seminar series 
in which students, faculty, and invited scien- 
tists from this and other institutions report on 
progress in their laboratories. 



Cell Biology and Genetics 

Graduate Program 
Co-Chairpersons 

June L. Biedler, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Walker Laboratory, Room 2127, 145 Boston 
Post Road, Rye, NY 10580, (914) 698-1100, 
ext. 210 

Donald A. Fischman, Department of Cell Biol- 
ogy and Anatomy, Room A- 112, Cornell Uni- 
versity Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, 
New York, NY 1002 1,(212) 472-6400 

Graduate Program 
Co-Directors 

Paula Traktman, Department of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy Room A-303, Cornell University' 
Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New 
York, NY 1002 1, ( 2 12 ) 472-25 16 

David B. Donner, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Howard Laboratory Room 909, 1275 York Av- 
enue, New York, NY 1002 1, ( 2 12 ) 794-7871 

The Program in Cell Biology and Genetics of- 
fers advanced study leading to the Ph.D. de- 
gree. The program is intended to prepare stu- 
dents for a career in basic research and 
teaching in cell or developmental biology, ge- 
netics, molecular biology, or related 
disciplines. 

Course Requirements: In the first two years 
students are expected to complete a core cur- 
riculum of Graduate Biochemistry, Cell Biol- 
ogy, and Molecular Genetics. To satisfy the re- 
quirements for the Ph.D., the students also 
select four elective courses with emphasis in 
either Cell Biology or Genetics. 

Laboratory Rotations: Students rotate 
through three laboratories during the first 
year Such rotations familiarize students with 
ongoing research in the Program and provide 
a mechanism for selection of the thesis spon- 
sor. Written rotation reports also provide 
practice in the skills of presenting scientific 
data. 

Admission to Doctoral CanduUicy: The Pro- 
gram administers this examination before the 
end of the second year of residence. The spe- 



cific format of the examination, which is com- 
posed of written and oral sections, is deter- 
mined by the examining committee. 
Typically the written examination covers 
three or four topics selected by the student 
and committee, and the oral examination 
centers around a brief research proposal on a 
topic chosen by the student. 

Courses 

Advanced Cell Biology. Advanced course 
covering topics in membrane biology, cyto- 
skeleton and cell motility, muscle cell biology, 
and aspects of nuclear structure and chromo- 
some organization. The course includes lec- 
tures and group discussions of assigned re- 
search papers. Prerequisite: previous 
background in basic cell biology or course di- 
rector's approval. Offered in alternate years. 
First and second quarters in 1989—90. Drs. 
Rodriguez-Boulan, Pardee and staff. 

Molecular Genetics. The class focuses on 
key topics of molecular genetics concerning 
gene structure and organization in prokary- 
otes and eukaryotes, chromosome structure, 
protein synthesis and translational and tran- 
scriptional control. The use of genetic, bio- 
chemical and molecular biological methods 
to study the questions experimentally is cov- 
ered in depth. Some topics of current interest 
such as immune diversity oncogenes and 
homeotic genes are also covered. The course 
includes an equal number of lectures and in- 
depth small-group discussions of representa- 
tive research papers from the current litera- 
ture. Prerequisite: background in biological 
sciences. Limited to 36 students. Offered 
every year with alternating faculties. Offered 
during the first and second quarters of 1988— 
89. Drs. Chao, Neff and Traktman. 

Genetics. Electives on advanced topics in 
genetics will be offered. Topics may include 
cytogenetics, genetic epidemiology and so 
matic cell genetics. Drs. Chaganti, German, 
Siniscalco and White. Schedule to be 
arranged. 

Graduate Student Seminar. This course is 
designed to improve graduate students' skills 
in public presentation. On a rotating basis, 
students prepare an oral presentation on their 
research or on a topic of their choice. The 



62 



presentation is informally critiqued by the 
faculty. First through fourth quarters, an- 
nually. Dr (^hao and staff. 

Developmental Biology. Principles of de 
scriptive. experimental, and molecular devel- 
opmental biolog) are presented, using several 
animal systems as examples. Early develop- 
ment of the whole organism, and of cells, tis- 
sues, and organs are considered. Prerequi- 
sites: consent of the faculty. Limited to 15 
students. Offered in alternate years; third and 
fourth quarters in 1988-89. Drs. Bachvarova 
and Bader 

Practicum in Electron Microscopy. A 

workshop in practical aspects of electron mi- 
croscopy. Following a weekly one-hour lec- 
ture, students conduct specific protocols in- 
volved in electron microscopy. Topics 
covered include: tissue fixation, embedding 
and thin sectioning; transmission and scan- 
ning electron microscopy; shadow-casting of 
proteins and nucleic acids; immunoc) to- 
chemistry; photography All participants are 
required to complete an independent project. 
Prerequisite: (.onsent of instructors. Require- 
ments for passing grade: CA)mpletion of an in- 
dependent project paper Limited to 10 stu- 
dents. Offered in 1988-89 during third and 
fourth quarters. Ms. (k)hen-(iould, Dr Fisch- 
man and staff. 

Cell Biology and Microscopic Anatomy. 

Offered by the staff of the Program in Cell Bi- 
ologN and Cenetics in conjunction with the 
Faculty of the (Cornell I'niversity Medical (-ol 
lege. This course follows a cellular and differ- 
entiative approach aimed at understanding 
the structure-fimction correlates that charac- 
terize the different tissues and organs. Se- 
lected topics are presented in the lectures, 
small-group discussions and laboratory exer- 
cises designed to provide students with the 
skills to study and analyze cells and tissues. A 
microscope slide collection, presenting tis- 
sues and organs in a variety of physiological 
and developmental states, as well as correla- 
tive electron micrographs, are provided for 
individual study in the laboratory. Second and 
third quarters, annually. Drs. Pardee and >X'all. 

Gross Anatomy. Regional anatomy is stud- 
ied principally through dissection of the hu- 
man body Supplementing this technique are 
prosections by instructors, tutorial group dis- 



cussions, and radiographic and endoscopic 
demonstrations. Enrollment is limited and 
students should consult the staff' early in or- 
der to determine the availabilit) of places. 
First and second quarters, annually, Drs. Haga- 
men and Vieber. and the staffs. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Endocrine Research in Progress Semi- 
nars. Reports of ongoing research by faculty 
of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 
Cornell L'niversity Medical College and The 
Rockefeller I niversit\ are given weekly 
throughout the year. 

Immunology 

Graduate Program Chairman 

Osias Stutman, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Ket- 
tering Laboratory. Room 1118, 12"^5 York Ave- 
nue. New York. NT 1002 1.(212) 794-^4 "^5 

Graduate Program Director 

Robert \X. Knowles. Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Schwartz I^iboratory Room 1001, 12~'5 '^brk 
Avenue. New ^brk. .Vl' 1002 1. ( 2 12 ) ^94--'089 

The program of study is developed tor each 
student individually on the basis of the stu- 
dent's interest and prior experience. The Im- 
munolog) Program has no fixed course re- 
quirements, but .students generally take a 
core of formal courses offered by the gradu- 
ate school in immunology; biochemistry, mo- 
lecular biology, cell biok)g\ and genetics in 
order to complement their previous back- 
ground and fulfill their own academic objec- 
tives. Participation in a graduate student sem- 
inar course is expected of all students to 
provide experience in oral presentation. Ad- 
mission to Doctoral Candidacy at the end of 
the second year requires both written and 
oral examinations of the candidate's general 
understanding of immunology and related 
subjects which are relevant to the proposed 
research. However, the main focus of the 
graduate program in immunology is on labo- 
ratory research. Each student is required to 
undertake at least two minor research proj- 
ects with different faculty members prior to 
developing a major research proposal for the 
doctoral thesis. This allows for laboratory ex- 
perience to begin during the first year of the 



student's program. By the third year the doc- 
toral candidate begins a full-rime thesis proj- 
ect which ty pically takes two to three years. 
During this time the student will not take for- 
mal courses but will continue to participate 
in the other educational programs offered by 
the Institute. These include a wide variety of 
research seminars which are offered through- 
out the year with speakers from outside the 
Institute. In addition, the Immunok)gy Pro- 
gram offers a series of colloquia on current 
topics in immunok)gy with presentations and 
discussions led by Immunology faculty 
members. 

Applicants should have a strong undergrad- 
uate background in the biological sciences, 
including biochemistry molecular genetics, 
and microbiology and are also expected to 
have some undergraduate laboratory research 
experience. The application requires a per- 
sonal statement describing the student's back- 
ground and specific interest in the Immunol- 
ogy Program. An official transcript of the 
student's undergraduate record is also neces- 
sary with at least two letters from faculty' 
members who can evaluate the academic po- 
tential of the student in a Ph.D. program in 
Immunology Applicants must also submit the 
results of the Graduate Record Exam includ- 
ing the advanced test in Biology or Chemistry. 

Courses 

Immunology This course provides a broad 
introduction to the field of Immunology and 
the specific research interests of the faculty. It 
is designed for first-year graduate students 
and others with no formal training in Immu- 
nology. It includes an overview of the immune 
system, but also covers selected topics in 
detail. 

These topics include techniques in immu- 
nok)g)', B lymphocytes, immunoglobulins and 
monock)nal antibodies, T lymphocytes and T 
cell ck)nes, immunogenetics of lymphocyte 
diflerentiatkm antigens, cell mediated immu- 
nity, T cell antigen receptors, natural cytotox 
icity macrophage and other accessory cells, 
lymphokines, the major histocompatibility 
complex genes and transplantation, HLA and 
disease associations, and tumor immunology: 
Quarters I and II, annually Dr Knowles and 
the Immunology Program Faculty. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Colloquia in Immunology Informal ses 
sions are held monthly between students and 
senior faculty members to acquaint students 



with the major research programs headed by 
each of the faculty members of the Immunol- 
ogy^ Program. 



Molecular Biology 

Graduate Program Chairman 

Kenneth I. Berns, Department of Microbiol- 
ogy, Room B-308, Cornell University Medical 
College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 
10021,(212)472-6540 

Graduate Program Director 

Kenneth J. Marians, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Kettering Laboratory, Room 820A, 1275 York 
Avenue, New York, NY 1002 1,(212) 794-5890 

Admission A good background in genetics, 
molecular biology, chemistry, or biochemistry 
is required of students. Graduate Record Ex- 
amination scores in both the aptitude test and 
the advanced test in biology or chemistry are 
also required. 

Course Requirements Students must com- 
plete a core sequence of Graduate Biochemis- 
try, Molecular Genetics, and Eucaryotic Gene 
Structure and Functk)n during their first year 
and Graduate Research Seminar throughout 
their enrollment. To complete the course re- 
quirements, eight additional quarter-equiva- 
lents of coursework must be taken before 
graduation chosen from a list of courses ap- 
proved by the Curriculum Committee. This 
list currently includes: Nucleic Acids Enzy- 
mology. Cell Biology, Developmental Biology, 
Molecular Virology, Molecular Biolog}' of 
Growth Control and Neoplastic Transforma- 
tion, Electron Microscopy, and Immunology. 

Laboratory Rotaticms Students are required 
to rotate through three laboratories. Labora- 
tory rotatk)ns begin immediately after an in- 
tensive series of lectures by the faculty de- 
signed to familiarize students with the 
research underway in their laboratories. Rota- 
tion periods are: October-January Febru- 
ary— May June— August. It is expected that 
students will have chosen their thesis mentor 
by the start of their second year in the 
program. 

Adm ission to Doctoral Candidacy Th is ex - 
amination will be given once a year at the end 
of the third quarter and consist of two parts, a 
uniform written exam and an oral defense of a 



64 



written research proposal. The proposal can- 
not be in the same field as the student's thesis 
research. It is expected that most students 
will take this exam during their second year. 

Special Committee A student's Special 
Committee will he chosen by the student's 
mentor in consultation with CAirriculum 
Committee when the student elects a labora- 
tory for thesis research. 

Curriculum Committee This committee, 
chaired by the Program Director and consist- 
ing of 8— 10 members of the faculty, oversees 
all educational aspects of the program. Tlie 
committee is responsible for assembling the 
curriculum, setting course requirements, ad- 
judicating student applications for exemption 
from course requirements, and the composi- 
tion and administration of the Admission-to- 
Candidacy Examination. 

Courses 

Eukaryotic Gene Structure and Function: 

A semester-long course presenting the funda- 
mentals of eukaryote gene structure, expres 
sion and regulation. Topics discussed include: 
DNA sequence organization, chromatin struc- 
ture, viral and cellular RNA transcription, 
translation and its regulation, control of gene 
expression in model systems and molecular 
aspects of carcinogenesis. Third and fourth 
quarters, annually Drs. Sheffery Falck-Peder- 
sen and staff. 

Nucleic Acids Enzymology: A formal 
course presenting the enzymological mecha- 
nisms and control of prokaryotic and eukary- 
otic transcription and DNA replication. En- 
zymes which alter DNA structure and shape 
are reviewed and topics in DNA repair and re- 
combination are also covered, draduate Bio- 
chemistry is a prerequisite. Alternate years. 
Offered first and second quarters, 1988-89. 
Drs. Marians, Hurw itz, and Holloman. 

Molecular Virology: A formal course in 
which major emphasis is placed on the basic 
mechanisms in the biology of all animal vi- 
ruses, including RNA and DNA tumor viruses. 
The topics considered include virus structure 
and composition, assay of viruses and viral- 
specific products, transcription and replica- 
tion of viral nucleic acids, translation of virus- 
specific proteins, assembly of viral particles, 
structural and functional alterations in viral- 
infected cells including transformation, 
pathogenesis of viral diseases, and viral genet- 
ics. Alternate years. Offered third and fourth 
quarters, 1988-89. Drs. Krug, Berns, and 
staff. 



Molecular Genetics: This course is de- 
signed to familiarize graduate students with 
practical problems in current research and to 
encourage critical reading of the scientific lit- 
erature. Students receive reading assignments 
and are expected to present short summaries 
of important experiments at each class meet- 
ing. Topics covered include protein structure, 
protein-nucleic acid interactions, models for 
transcription factors, genetic complementa- 
tion, and mapping and suppressor analysis in 
bacteria and yeast. First and second quarters, 
annually Drs. Traktman, Chao, Neft, Osley 
Jack, and Lustig. 

Molecular Biology of Growth Control* 
and Neoplastic Transformation: This 
course focuses on current efforts to under- 
stand the neoplastic cell phenotype from a 
molecular point of view. The effects of RNA 
and DNA tumor viruses on host cells are dis- 
cussed, in particular the transformation and/ 
or differentiation blocks of defined cell lin- 
eages by certain agents. The nature and enzy- 
matic specificities of viral gene products re- 
sponsible for transformation are compared 
with related products of normal cellular 
genes. ITie potential interaction of such prod- 
ucts with regulatory systems controlling cell 
shape, adhesiveness, motility, and mitosis are 
described, as well as the possible involvement 
of the same systems in nonviral neoplasias. A 
section of the course is devoted to the molec- 
ular biolog\' and biochemistry of cell surface 
growth factor- and polypeptide hormone- 
receptors and mechanisms of signal transmis- 
sion across biological membranes. At least 
part of the course consists of student presen- 
tations on relevant subjects. Third and fourth 
quarters, alternate years. ( Next offered in 
1989-90). Drs. Ha>-ward, Rosen, Besmer, and 
staff. 

Graduate Research Seminar: This 
course represents an opportunity tor all the 
faculty and students of the program to hear 
the upper-class students describe their re- 
search in formal seminar presentations. Quar- 
ters I -IV, annually Drs. Lacy and Rosen. 



Neurobiology and Behavior 

Graduate Program Chairman 

Donald J. Reis, Department of Neurology, 
Cornell University Medical College, Kips Bay 
Building, Room KB-410, 411 E. 69th Street, 
New York, NY 10021,(212)472-5594 



65 



Graduate Program Director 

Gary E. Gibson, Department of Neurology; 
Cornell University Medical College, Burke Re- 
habilitation Center, 785 Mamaroneck Avenue, 
White Plains, NY 10605, (914) 948-0050, ext. 
2291 

The Program in Neurobiology and Behavior 
provides training in the study of the nervous 
system. It includes the disciplines of neuro- 
anatomy, neuroembryology, neurophysiology, 
neuropharmacology, neurochemistry neu- 
roendocrinolog); molecular biologv; and neu- 
ropsychology' and perception. The program 
emphasizes a multidisciplinary approach to 
the study of the nervous system, based on the 
belief that future advances in our understand- 
ing of the nervous system will be derived 
from the thinking and research techniques 
employed by more than one discipline. 
Toward this end, the program of entering stu- 
dents is planned in consultation with several 
staff members, and the students are expected 
to spend some period of time working closely 
with members of the faculty' whose interests 
are related to theirs. In addition, there are 
regularly scheduled seminars during which 
various aspects of work in process are pre- 
sented and discussed. By these means, the 
students are afforded the broadest possible 
view of the program during their total train- 
ing experience. 

The student majoring in Neurobiology and 
Behavior will be required to satisfy the re- 
quirements of the courses in neuroscience, 
statistics, and biomathematics, and two in the 
following areas: microscopic anatomy, physi- 
ology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. The 
student must also have two minors, at least 
one of which is outside the program. In addi- 
tion, participation in the seminar program 
and advanced course offerings is expected. 
While there are no language requirements, it 
is suggested that the student achieve mastery 
of a modern foreign language or a computer 
programming language. The student choosing 
Neurobiolog)' and Behavior as a minor is re- 
quired to participate in the neuroscience 
course and the seminar program as well as 
obtain any additional experience that the mi- 
nor sponsor may suggest. 

Applicants to the program are expected to 
have had adequate undergraduate training in 
biology, organic chemistry, physics, and math- 
ematics. Graduate Record Examination 
scores are to be submitted with the applica- 
tion. An interview with the applicant is con- 
sidered highly desirable. 



Courses 

Neuroscience This is the basic undergradu- 
ate medical school course and is required of 
all major and minor candidates in the pro- 
gram. It is a broadly based course and intro- 
duces the student to neuroanatomy, neuro- 
physiology; and pertinent neurology; Fourth 
quarter annually. Drs. Brooks and Grafstein. 

Neuroscience Seminar Current topics of 
neurosciences, not included or minimally 
covered in the Neuroscience course, are ex- 
amined in detail. The course is required of all 
major candidates in the program. Fourth 
quarter annually. Drs. Brooks and Grafstein. 

Neuropharmacology ( see Program in 
Pharmacology ). 

Behavioral Neuroscience The aim of this 
course is to examine the neural substrates of 
a variety of behavioral and mental processes, 
including attention, perception, learning and 
memory, emotion, and language. Anatomical, 
physiological, pharmacological, biochemical, 
and molecular mechanisms of normal and 
pathological behaviors will be covered. The 
course will be divided into 4 lectures on 
basic mechanisms and 4 seminars exploring 
methodological and theoretical issues in con- 
temporary behavioral neuroscience. To be of- 
fered in 1989-90. Drs. LeDoux and Mann. 

Neurochemistry This course will concen- 
trate on the dynamics of neurotransmitter- 
amino acid, calcium and energy metabolism 
of the brain. The emphasis will range from in 
vivo studies in man and animal that relate di- 
rectly with behavior to purely chemical ap- 
proaches. To be offered in 1989-90. Dr 
Gibson. 

Molecular Neurobiology The aim of this 
course is to introduce current topics of rap- 
idly developing molecular biology research in 
neurosciences. Topics include basic concepts 
and techniques, structures of genes encoding 
neuron specific proteins and enzymes, and 
gene expression in neuronal cells. Second 
quarter, 1988-89. Dr Joh. 

Pharmacology 

Graduate Program 
Co-Chairmen 

Joseph R. Bertino, SIoan-Kettering Institute, 
Schwartz laboratory Room lOOlC., 12^5 York 
Avenue, New York, N^' 1002 1, ( 2 12 ) 794-8230 



66 



Walter W. Y. Chan, Department of Pharmacol- 
og\; Cornell University Medical College, 
Room E-400, 1300 York Avenue, New York, 
N\' 10021,(212)4^2-6029 

Graduate Program 
Co-Directors 

Michiko Okamoto, Department of Pharmacol- 
ogy, Cornell Universirv Medical College, 
Room E-4 11, 1300 \brk Avenue, New ^brk, N^' 
1002 1,(2 12) 4-72-59^5 

Francis M. Sirotnak, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Kettering Laboratory. Room 316, 1275 York 
Avenue, New \brk, N\' 1002 1,(212) 794-7952 

The Graduate Program in Pharmacology- is 
jointly sponsored by faculties of the Medical 
College Division and Sloan-Kettering Divi- 
sion. This coordinated faculrv provides the 
student with a broad spectrum of challenging 
research opportunities in modern pharmacol- 
og\' and a unified curriculum. Students admit- 
ted to this program will receive tuition schol- 
arships and stipends. 

Admission A baccalaureate degree with a 
strong background in the natural sciences 
and/or health sciences is required for admis- 
sion. Graduate Record Examinations in both 
the aptitude test ( verbal and quantitative ) and 
the advanced test in Biolog) or C.hemistry are 
also required for Ph.D. applicants. For appli- 
cations to the M.D -Ph.D. program, the results 
of the Medical College Admission Test are ac- 
cepted in lieu of the Ciraduate Record 
Examination. 

Course Requirements In the first two years 
students are expected to complete a core cur- 
riculum that may include: Graduate Biochem- 
istry, Cell Biology, Physiology, Neuroscience, 
Graduate Pharmacology, Molecular Pharma- 
cology, Molecular Biology, Immunology, and 
Graduate Seminar 

Minor Requirements an^ Laboratory 
Rotations Students are required to rotate 
through two or three laboratories. Until 
the student selects a major sponsor, the Cur- 
riculum Committee will supervise the stu- 
dent's graduate program. The minor require- 
ments must be completed before the student 
can take the Admission to Candidacy 
Examination. 

Admission to Doctoral Candidacy The Ad- 
mission to Candidacy Examination consists of 
two parts: a uniform written exam and an 



oral defense of a written research proposal. It 
is expected that most students will take this 
exam by the end of their second year. 

Special Committee A student's Special 
Committee will be chosen by the student and 
major sponsor in consultation with the Cur- 
riculum Committee after the student chooses 
a major sponsor for thesis research. 

Courses 

Introduction to Pharmacological Princi- 
ples This course is designed to introduce 
the student to concepts unique to pharmacol- 
ogy. The introductory course will emphasize 
general concepts in receptor theory, the 
dose-response relationship, mechanisms of 
drug action and resistance, pharmacokinetics, 
metabolism, tolerance and dependence. All 
first year graduate students in pharmacology 
are required to take this course, which is also 
open to all students in the graduate school. 
First quarter, annually. Dr Pasternak and staff. 

General Pharmacology This basic pharma- 
cology course consists of lectures, demon- 
strations, and small group conferences. The 
purpose of these exercises is to teach the 
principles of pharmacology to second-year 
medical students and to graduate students. 
Detailed consideration is given to the parame- 
ters of drug action to provide the student with 
the fundamental concepts essential for the 
evaluation of any drug, (consequently; the sci- 
entific basis of pharmacology is emphasized. 
Prototy pe drugs, essentially considered sys- 
tem ically serve to illustrate several mecha- 
nisms and parameters of drug action. Thera- 
peutic applications are considered insofar as 
they illustrate principles of pharmacology or 
drug hazards. Second and third quarters, an- 
nually. Dr. Chan and staff. 

Molecular Pharmacology Fundamental 
principles and mechanisms governing the ef- 
fects of chemicals on living systems are exam- 
ined from the viewpoint of drug-cell interac- 
tions. Several theoretical concepts are 
introduced including drug selectivity, dose- 
response relationships, and fundamentals of 
drug actions. Examples of receptor isolations, 
drug-receptor interactions, and effect or cou- 
pling along with natural and acquired resist- 
ance are also examined. Offered 1988- 1989, 
fourth quarter. Dr. Bertino and staff. 

Neuropharmacology This course presents 
the neuropharmacology of selected drugs and 
chemical substances that affect the central 



67 



nervous system. Emphasis is placed on molec- 
ular mechanisms of drug actions with regard 
to the biochemistry and physiology of ner- 
vous tissue. These considerations include 
mechanisms of neurotransmitter actions, in- 
cluding drug actions that modifv- neurotrans- 
mitter actions. Several pharmacologic con- 
cepts important to understanding drug action 
on the nervous system are considered 
throughout. These include selectivity; speci- 
ficity dose-response and receptor theory. Of- 
fered in 1989-90, fourth quarter. Dr Oka- 
moto and staff. 

Pharmacology Research Seminar This 
course gives students the opportunity- to hear 
Cornell faculty and invited scientists present 
their research. A question period enables stu- 
dents to probe the thinking of these scientists 
as they pursue their research projects. Sec- 
ond, third, and fourth quarters, 1988-89. Dr 
Reidenberg. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Research m Pharmacology Research op- 
portunities may be arranged throughout the 
year for graduate students who are not major- 
ing in pharmacology but who want some in- 
vestigative experience in the discipline. Spe- 
cial opportunities are offered for work on 
the nervous and cardiovascular systems and 
in biochemical and clinical aspects of 
pharmacology 

Journal Club This course is designed to im- 
prove graduate student's skills in public pre- 
sentation. On a rotating basis, students pre- 
pare an oral presentation on a topic of their 
choice. The presentation is informally cri- 
tiqued by the faculty- First through fourth 
quarters, annually; see the Program Directors 
for further information. 

Physiology and Biophysics 

Graduate Program Chairman 

Erich E. Windhager, Department of Physiol- 
ogy and Biophysics, Room C-5()8, C^ornell 
University Medical College, 1300 York Ave- 
nue, New York, NY 1002 1, (212) 472-5229 

Graduate Program Director 

Thomas Maack, Department of Fhysiolog\' 
and Biophysics, Room D-407, C>ornell Univer- 
sity Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New 
York, NY 1002 1,(212) 4^2-528 1 



Opportunities are offered toward the Ph.D. 
degree in several areas of physiology and bio- 
physics. Ample space is available, and labora- 
tories are well equipped to provide predoc- 
toral training in a medical environment. 
Interested individuals are urged to contact 
the Program Chairman before preparing a for- 
mal application. Letters of inquiry should in- 
clude a discussion of the educational back- 
ground and indicate possible areas of 
emphasis in graduate study. There has been a 
tendency to encourage applications from in- 
dividuals who have a probable interest in 
more than one of the areas of physiology rep- 
resented within the program. 

Applicants must have completed introduc- 
tory courses in biology; inorganic and organic 
chemistry, physics, and mathematics through 
the level of differential and integral calculus. 
Additional course work in these disciplines at 
the undergraduate level is encouraged. Appli- 
cants with otherwise exemplary records who 
lack certain course requirements will be con- 
sidered for acceptance provided that they 
remedy their deficiencies while in training. 

The course of study emphasizes the impor- 
tance of teaching and research in the prepara- 
tion and development of individuals for ca- 
reers in physiology. This goal is achieved by a 
combination of didactic courses, seminars, 
and closely supervised research leading 
toward the preparation of a satisfactory thesis. 

A special program of study will be devel- 
oped for each student in consultation with 
his or her Special Committee. In addition to 
the general requirements set by the Graduate 
School for all programs, all candidates for the 
doctoral degree in physiolog) will be ex- 
pected to meet the following requirements: 

1 . Evidence of a satisfactory background in 
neurosciences. Ordinarily, the course in 
neuroscience described under the Pro- 
gram in Neurobiology- and Behavior, or an 
equivalent course, will be taken concur- 
rently with the course in physiology- and 
biophysics. 

2. Satisfactory completion of the course in 
physiology and biophysics, or an equiva- 
lent course. 

3. For majors and minors in the program, a 
minimum of two elective courses in the 
program ordinarily will be required, in ad^ 
dition to the course in Physiology and 
Biophysics. 



68 



Courses 

Physiology and Biophysics Lectures and 
conferences on body fluids, bioelectric phe- 
nomena, endocrinology and circulation. 
Third quarter, annually. Dr. indhager and 
staff. Endocrinology is taught as an interdisci- 
plinary course during two weeks ( from 9 to 
5 ) of this quarter using hours normally allo- 
cated not only to courses in physiology, but 
also in cell biology, and biochemistry ( course 
coordinator: Dr. Cireif ). 

Lectures and conferences on respiration, kid- 
ney function, acid-base regulation, and gas- 
trointestinal function; and a weekly labora- 
tory on selected aspects of physiology. Fourth 
quarter, annually Dr. >X indhager and staff. 

Topics in Membrane Physiology This 
weekly conference is designed for Ph.D. and 
M.D.-Ph.D. students with a major or minor in 
Physiology and Biophysics. It is at a somewhat 
advanced level, especially in its quantitative 
approach to physiology. The aims of the con- 
ference are to train students in physiological 
concepts, to facilitate the understanding of 
lecture material in the Physiology and Bio- 
physics course, and to establish ck)se student- 
faculty contact. Third quarter, annually Dr 
Andersen. 

Selected Topics in Kidney and Electrolyte 
Physiology and Pathophysiology Lec- 
tures, seminars and demonstrations. Topics 
include: 1 ) (iFR. clearance concept, reab- 
sorption and secretion of electrolytes; 2 ) con- 
centrating mechanism; 3 ) electrophysiology 
of the nephron; 4 ) pathophysiology of potas- 
sium; 5 ) renal blood flow and its intrarenal 
distribution; 6 ) renal physiology in the new- 
born; 7) control of body fluid volume and to- 



nicity; 8 ) pathology and pathophysiology of 
renal failure; urinary sediment; 9 ) radiology 
of the kidneys; 10) dialysis; 11 ) transplanta- 
tion. Minimum of 8 students. Fourth quarter, 
annually Drs. Maack, Windhager and stafif. 

Ionic Channels The course covers mathe- 
matical and experimental approaches to the 
topic of ion movement through single chan- 
nels. Minimum of 5 students. Prerequisite: 2 
years of calculus. Fourth quarter, annually. Dr. 
Andersen and invited lecturers. 

Physiology of Cardiac Muscle The course 
is designed to present cellular mechanisms 
which are involved in the fundamental pro- 
cesses of excitation and contraction of car- 
diac muscle. Topics include: 1 ) action poten- 
tial; 2 ) ion transport; 3 ) contractility (positive 
and negative inotropic effects); 4 ) excitation- 
contraction coupling; 5 ) arrhythmias; 6 ) car- 
diac failure. One laboratory day is planned for 
demonstrations of changes in action potential 
and twitch tension by inotropic agents. Mini- 
mum of 5 students. Prerequisites: third quar- 
ter physiology or equivalent. Fourth quarter, 
annually. Dr. Lee and invited lecturers. 

Topics in Gastrointestinal Physiology 

Lectures and Seminars. Topics include: 1 ) 
functional morphology of stomach and intes- 
tine; 2 ) proliferation and differentiation of 
gastrointestinal cells; 3 ) motility of swell in 
esophagus, small intestine and colon; 4 ) gas- 
tric and intestinal secretion; pancreatic secre- 
tion; 5 ) lipid absorption; 6 ) intestinal absorp- 
tion of calcium and vitamin D; ^ ) structure 
and function of bile acids; 8 ) gastrointestinal 
hormones. Minimum: 8 students. Fourth 
quarter, annually Dr. Lipkin and invited ex- 
perts in the field. 



69 



Register 



University Administration Standing Committees 



Frank H. T. Rhodes, President of the 

Universit)' 
Robert Barker, University Provost 

G. Thomas Shires, Provost for Medical Affairs 

and Dean of the Medical College 
James E. Morley, Jr., Senior Vice President 

Joseph M. Ballant) ne, Vice President for 
Research and Advanced Studies 

John E Burness, Vice President for University 
Relations 

William D. Gurowitz, Vice President for 

Campus Affairs 
George H. Huxel, Vice President for Finance 

and Treasurer 
M. Stuart Lynn, Vice President, Information 

Technologies 
Richard M. Ramin, Vice President for Public 

Affairs 

Joycelyn R. Hart, Associate Vice President for 
Human Relations 

James A. Sanderson, Chief Investment Officer 
Maiden C. Nesheim, Vice Provost for Planning 
and Budgeting 

Larry I. Palmer, Vice Provost for Academic 
Programs 

Walter J. Relihan, Jr., University Counsel and 
Secretary of the Corporation 

Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences 

Administration 

Frank H. T. Rhodes, President of the 

University 
Alison P Casarett, Dean of the Graduate 

School 

Bernard L. Horecker, Dean of the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences, Associate 
Dean of the Graduate School 

Dieter H. Sussdorf, Associate Dean of the 

Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 
Assistant Dean of the Graduate School 

Richard A. Rifkind, Director, Sloan-Kettering 
Division 



Executive Committee 

Bernard L. Horecker, Chair 
Kenneth I. Berns 
Joseph Bertino 
June L. Biedler 
Walter W. Y. Chan 
David B. Donner 
Meri T. Firpo* 
Donald A. Fischman 
Alton Meister 
Michiko Okamoto 
Donald J. Reis 
Richard A. Rifkind 
Lizabeth Romanski* 
G. Thomas Shires 
Dieter H. Sussdorf 
Osias Stutman 
Erich E. Windhager 

Faculty Advisory 
Committee 

Michiko Okamoto, Chair 
Robert Bauchwitz 
Virginia Bayer 
David B. Donner 
Gary E. Gibson 
Bernard L. Horecker* 
Robert W. Knowles 
Thomas Maack 
Kenneth J. Marians 
Richard A. Rifkind* 
G. Thomas Shires* 
Francis M. Sirotnak 
Dieter H. Sussdorf* 
Paula Traktman 
Daniel Wellner 

Curriculum Committee 

Donald A. Fischman, Chair 
David B. Donner 
Bo DuPont 
Alton Meister 



•nonvoting member 



TongH.Joh 
Richard A. Rifkind 
Francis M. Sirotnak 
Dieter H. Sussdorf 
Erich E. Windhager 

Credentials Review 
Committee 

Dieter H. Sussdorf, Chair 
Rosemary E Bachvarova 
Robert W. Knowles 
Joel D. Pardee 
Martin Sonenberg 

M.D.-Ph.D. Program 
Committee 

Donald A. Fischman, C.hair 
Kenneth I. Berns 
Marvin C. Gershengorn 
Jerard Hurwitz 
Ralph L. Nachman 
Osias Stutman 

Committee on Student 
Prizes 

Michiko Okamoto, (^hair 
Anthony Brown 
Magdalena Eisinger 
Ganes Sen 
Suresh Tate 

Faculty 

Albino, Anthony P, Assistant Professor of Im- 
munology. B.A. 1970, Hunter College; 
Ph.D. 1974, Cornell Universit\' 

Alonso, Daniel R., Professor of Pathology. M.D. 
1962, University of Cuyo (Argentina ) 

Andersen, Olaf S., Professor of Physiology and 
Biophysics. Candidatus Medicinae 1971, 
University of Copenhagen (Denmark) 

Bachvarova, Rosemary E, Associate Professor 
of Cell Biology' and Anatomy. B.A. 1961, 
Radclifife College; Ph.D., 1966, Rocke- 
feller University 



Bader, David M., Assistant Professor of Cell Bi- 
ology and Anatomy B.A. 1974, Augus- 
tana College; Ph.D. 1978, University' of 
North Dakota 

Baker, Harriet D., Associate Research Profes- 
sor of Neurology. B.A. 1963, Wells Col- 
lege; M.S. 1967, University of Illinois; 
Ph.D. 1976, University of Iowa 

Bank, Arthur, Adjunct Professor of Cell Biol- 
ogy and Anatomy. B.A. 1956, Columbia 
University; M.D. I960, Harvard Univer- 
sity Medical School 

Barany, Francis, Assistant Professor of Micro- 
biology. B.A. 1976, University of Illinois 
at Chicago Circle; Ph.D. 198 1, Rockefel- 
ler University 

Becker, Carl G., Professor of Pathology B.S. 
1957 Yale University; M.D. 1961, Cor- 
nell University 

Bedford, J. Michael, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy B.A. 1955, M.A., V.M.D. 
1958, (>ambridge University ( England ); 
Ph.D. 1965, University of London 
( England ) 

Berns, Kenneth 1., R.A. Rees Pritchett Profes- 
sor of Microbiology. A.B. I960, Ph.D. 
1964, M.D. 1966, Johns Hopkins 
University 

Bertino, Joseph R., Professor of Pharmacology 
B.S. 1950, Cornell University; M.D. 
1954, Downstate Medical Center 

Besmer, Peter, Assistant Professor of Molecu- 
lar Biology. M.S. 1964; Ph.D. 1969, 
Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule 
(Switzerland) 

Bianco, Celso, Adjunct Professor of Cell Biol- 
ogy and Anatomy M.D. 1966, Escola 
Paulista de Medicina (Sao Paulo, Brazil) 

Biedler, June L., Professor of Cell Biology and 
Genetics. A.B. 1947 Vassar College; 
Ph.D. 1959, Cornell University 

Bigler, Rodney E., Associate Professor of Phys- 
iology and Biophysics. B.S. 1966, Port- 
land State College; Ph.D. 1971, Univer- 
sity of Texas 

Black, Ira B., Nathan Cummings Professor of 
Neurology. A.B. 1961, Columbia Col- 
lege; M.D. 1965, Harvard University 



73 



Blass, John P, Winifred Masterson Burke Pro- 
fessor of Neurology. Prt)fessor of Medi- 
cine. A.B. 1958, Harvard University; 
Ph.D. 1960, University of London ( En- 
gland), M.D. 1965, Columbia University 

Bockman, Richard Steven, Associate Professor 
of Medicine. B.A. 1962, Johns Hopkins 
University'; M.D. 1967, Yale University 
School of Medicine; Ph.D. 1971, Rocke- 
feller University 

Boskey Adele L, Professor of Biochemistry. 

B.A. 1964, Barnard College; Ph.D. 1970, 
Brown University' 

Boyse, Edward A., Professor of Immunology. 
M.B.B.S. 1952, M.D. 1957 University of 
London ( England ) 

Breslow, Esther M., Professor of Biochemistry 
B.S. 1953, Cornell University; M.S. 1955, 
Ph.D. 1959, New York University 

Brooks, Dana C, Professor of Cell Biology and 
Anatomy B E E. 1949, M.D. 1957 Cor- 
nell University 

Brown, Anthony M.C., Assistant Professor of 
Cell Biology and Anatomy. Assistant 
Professor of Cell Biology and Anatomy 
in Microbiology B.A. 1977 M A. 1979, 
University of Cambridge (United King- 
dom ); Ph.D. 1981, University' of Edin- 
burgh (United Kingdom ) 

Bullough, Peter, Professor of Pathology. M.D. 
1956, Liverpool University (England) 

Cayre, Yvon, Assistant Professor of Immunol- 
ogy. M.D. 1972, Montpellier Faculty of 
Medicine (France); Dr. Sci. 1978, Paris 
Faculty of Science ( France ) 

Chaganti, Raju S., Professor of Cell Biology 

and Genetics. B.S. 1954, M.S. 1955, An- 
dhra University (India); Ph.D. 1964, 
Harvard University 

Chan, Walter W. Y, Professor of Pharmacok)gy. 
B.A. 1956, University of Wisconsin; 
Ph.D. 1961, Columbia University 

Chao, Moses V, Assistant Professor of Cell Bi- 
ology and Anatomy B.A. 1973, Pomona 
College; Ph.D. 1980, University of Cali- 
fornia at Los Angeles 

Chiorazzi, Nicholas, Professor of Medicine. 
B.A. 1966, College of the Holy Cross; 
M.D. 1970, (ieorgetown University 
School of Medicine 



Chou, Ting-Chao, Associate Professor of Phar- 
macology. B.S. 1961, Kaohsiung Medical 
College (Taiwan); M.S. 1965, National 
Taiwan University; Ph.D. 1970, Yale 
University 

Cooper, Arthur J. L., Associate Research Pro- 
fessor of Biochemistry in Neurology, 
Assistant Professor of Biochemistry. 
B.Sc. 1967 M.Sc. 1969, University of 
London (England); Ph.D. 1974, Cornell 
University 

Cowburn, David, Adjunct Associate Professor 
of Physics in Radiology. B.S. 1965, Uni- 
versity of Manchester ( United King- 
dom ); Ph.D. 1970, D.Sc. 1982, Univer- 
sity of London ( United Kingdom ) 

Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew, Associate Professor 
of Cell Biology and Genetics. M.D. 
I960, Academy of Medicine, Warsaw 
(Poland ); Ph.D. 1965, Academy of Medi- 
cine and Polish Academy of Sciences 
(Poland) 

DiCicco-BIoom, Emanuel Murray, Assistant 
Professor of Neurology. A.B. 1973, 
Princeton University; M.D. 1977, Cor- 
nell University Medical College 

Dickerman, Robert W, Associate Professor Of 
Microbiology B.S. 1951, Cornell Univer- 
sity; M A. 1953, University of Arizona; 
Ph.D. 1961, University of Minnesota 

Donner, David B., Associate Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. B.A. 1966, 
Queens College; Ph.D. 1972, Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute 

Dreyfus, Cheryl E, Assistant Research Profes- 
sor of Developmental Neurology in 
Neurology. Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy B.S. 1967 Univer- 
sity of Vermont; M.S. 1969, Ph.D. 1976, 
Cornell University 

Dupont, Bo, Professor of Immunology M.D. 
1966, University of Arhus (Denmark) 

Edelson, Paul, Associate Professor of Pediat- 
rics in Microbiology A.B. 1964, Univer- 
sity of Rochester; M.D. 1969, State Uni- 
versity of New York, Downstate 
Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 

Eisinger, Magdalena G., Associate Professor of 
Cell Biology and Genetics. D.VM. 1962, 
Agricultural University Kosice 
( Czechoslovakia ) 



74 



Ellis, John T, David D. Thompson Professor of 
Pathology. B.A. 1942, University of 
Texas; M.D. 1945, Northwestern 
University 

Fairclough, Gordon E, Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry B.A. I960, Ph.D. 1966, 
Yale University 

Falck-Pedersen, Erik, Assistant Professor of 

Microbiology. B.A. 1976, North Central 
College; Ph.D. 1982, University of 
Illinois 

Fell, Colin, Associate Professor of Physiology 
and Biophysics. B.A. 1951, Antioch Col- 
lege; M.S. 1953, Ph.D. 1957, Wayne State 
• University 

Felsen, Diane E, Assistant Professor of Phar- 
macology in Surgery B.A. 1974, Queens 
College; Ph.D. 1979, Mt. Sinai School of 
Medicine 

Fischman, Donald A., Harvey Klein Professor 
of Biomedical Sciences in (.ell Biology 
and Anatomy A.B. 1957, Kenyon Col- 
lege; M.D. 1961, Cornell University 

Flomenberg, Neal, Assistant Professor of Im- 
munology. B.S. 1974, Pennsylvania State 
University; M.D. 1976, Jefferson Medi- 
cal College 

Gardner, Daniel, Associate Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics. A.B. 1966, Co- 
lumbia College; Ph.D. 1971, New York 
University 

Gass, Jerald D., Associate Professor of Bio- 
chemistry B.S. 1957, University of Okla- 
homa; A.M. 1962, Harvard University; 
Ph.D. 1969, Cornell University 

Gelbard, Allan S., Associate Professor of De- 
vek)pmental Therapy and C:iinical In- 
vestigation. B.S. 1955, Brooklyn Col- 
lege; M.S. 1956, University of 
Massachusetts; Ph.D. 1959, University 
of Wisconsin 

Geller, Nancy L, Associate Professor of Devel- 
opmental Therapy and Clinical Investi- 
gation. B.S. 1965, City University of 
New York; M A. 1967 Case Institute of 
Technology; Ph.D. 1972, Case Western 
Reserve University 

German, James L. Ill, Clinical Professor of Pe- 
diatrics. B.S. 1945, Louisiana Polytech- 
nic Institute; M.D. 1949, Southwestern 
Medical College 



Gershengorn, Marvin C, Abbey Rockefeller 
Mauze Distinguished Professor of En- 
docrinology in Medicine. Professor of 
Medicine in Physiology and Biophysics. 
B.S. 1967 City College of the City Uni- 
versity of New York; M.D. 1971, New 
York University School of Medicine 

Gibbs, James G. Jr., Associate Professor of Psy- 
chiatry B.S. I960, Trinity College; M.D. 
1964, Medical College of South 
Carolina 

Gibson, Gary E., Associate Professor of Bio- 
chemistry in Neurology. B.S. 1968, Uni- 
versity of Wyoming; Ph.D. 1973, Cor-* 
nell University 

Gilboa, Eli, Associate Professor of Molecular 
Biology. B SC. 1971, M.Sc. 1973, Hebrew 
University, Jerusalem; Ph.D. 1977 Weiz- 
mann Institute of Science. 

Gilder, Helena, Adjunct Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry. Adjunct Associate Profes- 
sor of Pediatrics. A.B. 1935, Vassar Col- 
lege; M.D. 1940, Cornell University 

Goldstein, Jack, Adjunct Associate Professor 
of Biochemistry. B.A. 1952, Brooklyn 
College; M.N.S. 1957 Ph.D. 1959, Cor- 
nell University 

Graf, Lloyd H. Jr., Adjunct Assistant Professor 
of Genetics in Obstetrics and Gynecol- 
ogy. B.S. 1967 Ph.D. 1972, Duke 
University 

Grafstein, Bernice, Vincent and Brook Astor 
Distinguished Professor of Neurosci- 
ence in Physiology' and Biophysics. B.A. 
1951, University of Toronto (Canada); 
Ph.D. 1954, McGill University (Canada) 

Greif, Roger L., Emeritus Professor of Physiol- 
ogy and Biophysics. B.S. 1937 Haver- 
ford College; M.D. 194 1, Johns Hopkins 
University 

Griffith, Owen W, Associate Professor of Bio- 
chemistry B.A. 1968, University of Cali- 
fornia at Berkeley; Ph.D. 1976, Rocke- 
feller University 

Haj jar, David P, Associate Professor of Pathol- 
ogy Associate Professor of Biochemis- 
try B.A. 1974, American International 
College; M.S. 1977 Ph.D. 1978, Univer- 
sity of New Hampshire 

Halmi, Katherine A., Professor of Psychiatry 

B.A. 1961, M.D. 1965, University of Iowa 



•7^ 



Hammerling. lUrich, Professor of Immunol- 
og). Diplom 196 1 Univcrsitat Freiburg 
(Germany); Ph.D. 1965, Max Planck In- 
stitut fur Immunobiologie (Germany ) 

Haschemeyer, Rudy H., Professor of Biochem- 
istry B.A. 1952, Carthage College; Ph.D. 
1957, Universit}' of Illinois 

Hassold, Terry Jon, Assistant Professor of Pedi- 
atrics. B.S. 1968, M.S. 1971, Ph.D. 1977 
Michigan State Universirv- 

Hayward, William S., Professor of Molecular 
Biology-. B.A. 1964, University of Califor- 
nia, Riverside; Ph.D. 1969, Universit}' of 
California, San Diego 

Hinkle, Lawrence E. Jr., Professor of Medicine; 
Professor of Medicine in Psychiatry. 
B.A. 1938, University of North Carolina; 
M.D. 1942, Harvard University 

Hoffmann, Michael K., Associate Professor of 
Immunology. M.D. 1966, Universitat 
Tubingen ( Germany ) 

Holloman, William, Professor of Microbiology. 
B.S. 1967 Universit}' of Texas; Ph.D. 
1971, Universit}' of California, Berkeley 

Horecker, Bernard L., Dean, Professor of Bio- 
chemistry B.S. 1936, Ph.D. 1939, Uni- 
versit}' of Chicago 

Hosein, Barbara H., Adjunct Assistant Profes- 
sor of Cell Biology and Anatomy. B.A. 
1969, Universit} of Kansas; M.S. 1971, 
Ph.D. 1973, Universit}' of Michigan 

Houghton, Alan, Assistant Professor of Immu- 
nolog}. B.A. 19^0, Stanford Universit} ; 
M.D. 1974, Universit}' of Connecticut 

Hurwitz, Jerard, Professor of Molecular Biol- 
og}'. B.A. 1949, Indiana Universit}'; Ph.D. 
1953, Western Reserve University 

Hutchison. Dorris J., Professor of Cell Biolog}' 
and Genetics. B.S. 1940, Western Ken- 
tuck}- State College; M.S. 1943, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky; Ph.D. 1949, Rutgers 
Universit}' 

lacovitti, Lorraine, Assistant Professor of Neu- 
robiolog}' in Neurology. B.S. 1973, Mon- 
mouth College; Ph.D. i979, Cornell 
University Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences 

Inturrisi, Charles E.. Professor of Pharmacol 
og}. B.S. 1962, University of (Connecti- 
cut; M.S. 1965, Ph.D. 1967 Tulane 
University 



Jack, Joseph R., Assistant Professor of Molecu- 
lar Biolog}'. B.A. 1972, Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity; Ph.D. 1978, University of Texas 

Jaffe, Eric, Professor of Medicine. M.D. 1966, 
State University of New York, Down- 
state Medical Center 

Joh, Tong Hyub, Professor of Neurobiolog}' in 
Neurolog}'. B.S. 1953, Seoul National 
Universit}' ( Korea ); Ph.D. 1971, New 
York Universit}' 

Keithly, Jan S., Assistant Professor of Microbi- 
ology; Assistant Professor of Microbiol- 
ogy in Medicine. B.S. 1963, Central Mis- 
souri State Universit}'; Ph.D. Iowa State 
Universit}' 

Kim, Kwang-Jin, Assistant Professor of Medi- 
cine. Assistant Professor of Physiology 
and Biophysics. B.S.E.E. 1971, M.S.E.E. 
1973, Seoul National Universit}' ( Ko- 
rea); Ph.D. 1980, University of 
Pennsylvania 

King, Thomas K. C, Associate Professor of 

Medicine, Associate Professor of Medi- 
cine in Physiolog}' and Biophysics. 
M.B.B.Ch. 1959, M.D. 1963, University 
of Edinburgh (United Kingdom ) 

Klein, Irwin L, Associate Professor of Medi- 
cine. B.A. 1969, Universit}' of Pennsyl- 
vania; M.D. 1973, New York Universit}' 
School of Medicine 

Knowles, Robert, Assistant Professor of Im- 

munolog}'. A.B. 1970, Bowdoin College; 
Ph.D. 1976, Pennsylvania State 
Universit}' 

Kou rides, lone A., Associate Professor of Cell 
Biolog}' and Genetics. B.A. 1963, 
Wellesley College; M.D. 1967 Harvard 
University 

Krug, Robert M., Professor of Molecular Biol- 
ogy. B.A. 1961, Harvard University; 
Ph.D. 1966, Rockefeller University 

Lacy Elizabeth, Assistant Professor of Molecu- 
lar Biology B.A. 1974, University of 
Pennsylvania; Ph.D. 1980, California In- 
stitute of Technology 

Lai, Chun-Yen, Adjunct Professor of Biochem- 
istry B.S. 1953, M.S. 1957 National Tai- 
wan University; Ph.D. 1961, University 
of Illinois 

I^ughlin,J()hn S., Professor of Developmental 
Therapy and (Clinical Investigation. A.B. 
1940, Willamette University; Ph.D. 
1947, University of Illinois 



76 



LeDoux, Joseph E., Assistant Professor of Neu- 
rology: B.S. 1971, M.S. 1974, Louisiana 
State University- Ph.D. 1977, State Uni- 
versity of New York at Stony Brook 

Lee, Chin Ok, Professor of Physiology and 
Biophysics. M.S. 1967, Seoul National 
University (Korea); Ph.D. 19"^3. Indiana 
University School of Medicine 

Lee, Janet, Assistant Professor of Immunology. 
B.A. 1972, University of Minnesota; M.S. 
1974, University of Wisconsin; Ph.D. 
1979, University of California at San 
Francisco 

Levi, Roberto, Professor of Pharmacology. 
M.D. 1960, University of Florence 
(Italy) 

Levy, David E., Associate Professor of Neurol- 
ogy A.B. 1963, M.D. 1968, Harvard 
University 

Lin, Chiann-Tso, Assistant Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics. Diploma of Engi- 
neering 1963, Taipei Institute of Tech- 
nology; Diploma of (chemistry ( Master ) 
1970, Technical University of Braun- 
schweig ( West (iermany ); Ph.D. 19^4, 
University of Frankfurt ( VCest Ciermany ) 

Lipkin, Martin, Professor of Medicine. A.B. 

1946, M.D. 1950, New York University 

Lloyd, Kenneth O., Professor of Immunology. 
Ph.D. 1960, University of College of 
North Wales (U.K.) 

Lusky, Monica, Assistant Professor of Microbi- 
ok)gy. B.A. 19"'3, M A. 1975, M.S. 19^^, 
Ph.D. 1980, Albert-Ludwigs University 
Freiberg ( Ciermany ) 

Lustig, Arthur J., Assistant Professor of Molec- 
ular Biology. B.A. 19^5, Ph.D. 1981, The 
University of Chicago 

Maack, Thomas, Professor of Physiology and 
Biophysics. M.D. 1962, University of 
Sao Paulo ( Brazil ) 

Mann, J. John, Associate Professor of Psychia- 
try B.S., M.D. 1971, University of Mel- 
bourne (Australia ) 

Marians, Kenneth J., Associate Professor of 
Molecular Biology. B.S. 1972, Polytech- 
nic Institute of Brooklyn; Ph.D. 1976, 
Cornell University 

Marks, Paul A., Professor of Cell Biology and 
Genetics. A.B. 1945, Columbia Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1949, College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, Columbia University 



Meister, Alton, Israel Rogosin Professor of Bio- 
chemistry B.S. 1942, Harvard Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1945, Cornell University 

Melamed, Myron R., Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. B.S. 1947, Western Re- 
serve University; M.D. 1950, University 
of Cincinnati 

Mendelsohn, John, Professor of Pharmacology. 
B.A. 1958, Harvard College; M.D. 1963, 
Harvard Medical College 

Minick, C. Richard, Professor of Pathology. 

B.S. 1957 University of Wyoming; M.D. 
I960, Cornell University 

Mental, Mauricio, Adjunct Professor of Phar- 
macology. Ph.D. 19^0, University of 
Pennsylvania; M.D. 1971, National Uni- 
versity of Mexico 

Moore, Malcolm A. S., Professor of Cell Biol- 
ogy and Genetics. M.B. 1963, B.A. 1964, 
D. Phil. 1967 M A. 1970, Oxford Univer- 
sity ( England) 

Muller-Eberhard, I 'rsula, Professor of Pediat- 
rics; Professor of Pharmacology M.D. 
1953, University of Gottingen 
( (iermany ) 

Murray, Henry W, Associate Professor of Med- 
icine. B.A. 1968, Cornell University; 
M.D. 1972, Cornell University Medical 
(College 

Nachman, Ralph L., Professor of Medicine. 
A.B. 1953, M.D. 1956, Vanderbilt 
University 

Nathan, Carl, Stanton Grilfis Distinguished 
Professor of Medicine. B.A. 1967, Har- 
vard University; M.D. 1972, Harvard 
Medical School. 

Neff, Norma. Assistant Professor of Molecular 
Biology. B.A. 1974, Rice University ; 
Ph.D. 1978, University of California, 
Berkeley 

Novogrodsky; Abraham, Professor of Bio- 
chemistry M.D. 1960, Hebrew Univer- 
sity Medical School, Jerusalem; Ph.D. 
1974, Weizmann Institute of Science, 
Rehovot ( Israel ) 

O'Donnell, Michael E., Assistant Professor of 
Microbiology. B.S. 1975, University of 
Portland; Ph.D. 1982, University of 
Michigan 



77 



Oettgen, Herbert E, Professor of Immunology. 
M.D. 195 1, University of Cologne 
(Germany) 

Okamoto, Michiko, Professor of Pharmacol- 
ogy. B.S. 1954, Tokyo College of Phar- 
macy (Japan ); M.S. 1957, Purdue Univer- 
sity; Ph.D. 1964, Cornell University 

Old, Lloyd J., Professor of Immunology. B.A. 
1955, M.D. 1958, University of 
California 

O'Leary William M., Professor of Microbiol- 
ogy. B.S. 1952, M.S. 1953, Ph.D. 1957 
University of Pittsburgh 

O'Reilly, Richard J., Professor of Immunology 

A. B. 1964, College of the Holy Cross; 
M.D. 1968, University of Rochester 

Osley Mary Ann, Assistant Professor of Molec- 
ular Biology B.A. 1967 Wheaton Col- 
lege; Ph.D. 1973, Yale University 

Palmer, Lawrence G., Associate Professor of 
Physiolog)' and Biophysics. B.A. 1970, 
Swarthmore College; Ph.D. 1976, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania 

Pardee, Joel D., Assistant Professor of Cell Bi- 
ology and Anatomy B.S. 1973, Colorado 
State University; Ph.D. 1978, Stanford 
University 

Pasternak, Gavril W., Associate Professor of 
Neurology. Associate Professor of Phar- 
macology. B.A. 1969, M.D. 1973, Ph.D. 
1974, Johns Hopkins University 

Pelus, Louis M., Assistant Professor of Cell Bi- 
ology and Genetics. B.A. 1973, Queens 
College of the City University of New 
York; M.S. 1977 Ph.D. 1977 Rutgers 
University 

Petito, Carol K., Professor of Pathology B.S. 
1963, Jackson College; M.D. 1967 Co- 
lumbia University 

Pickel, Virginia M., Professor of Neurobiology 
in Neurok)gy. B.S. 1965, M.S. 1967 Uni- 
versity of Tennessee; Ph.D. 1970, Van- 
derbilt University 

Pickering, Thomas G., Professor of Medicine. 

B. A. 1962, M A. 1968, Cambridge Uni- 
versity ( England ); Ph.D. 1970, Oxford 
University ( England ) 

Posnett, David Neil, Assistant Professor of 

Medicine. M.D. 1977, University of Ge- 
neva ( Switzerland ) 



Plum, Fred, Anne Parrish Titzell Professor of 
Neurology B.A. 1944, Dartmouth Col- 
lege; M.D. 1947, Cornell University 

Prince, Alfred M., Clinical Associate Professor 
of Pathology. A.B. 1949, Yale University; 
M A. 1951, Columbia University; M.D. 
1955, Western Reserve University 

Pulsinelli, William Anthony, Associate Profes- 
sor of Neurology B.S. 1965, Villanova 
University; Ph.D. 1970, M.D. 1973, Uni- 
versity of Utah College of Medicine 

Quimby Ered, Associate Professor of Pathol- 
ogy. V.D.M. 1970, University of Pennsyl- 
vania School of Veterinary Medicine; 
Ph.D. 1974, University of Pennsylvania 
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences 

Rabellino, Enrique M., Senior Research Asso- 
ciate Professor of Medicine. B.S. 1959, 
Institute J. M. Paz (Argentina); M.D. 
1965, University of Cordoba 
(Argentina) 

Rabkin, Samuel D., Assistant Professor of Mo- 
lecular Biology. B.Sc. 1976, University 
of Toronto; M.Sc. 1978, Hebrew Univer- 
sity of Jerusalem; Ph.D. 1983, Univer- 
sity of Chicago 

Rachele, Julian R., Emeritus Professor of Bio- 
chemistry B.A. 1934, M.S. 1935, Ph.D. 
1939, New York University 

Ra vetch, Jeffrey A., Associate Professor of Mo- 
lecular Biology B.S. 1973, Yale Univer- 
sity; Ph.D. 1978, Rockefeller University; 
M.D. 1979, Cornell University 

Rayson, Barbara, Assistant Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics; Assistant Profes- 
sor of Medicine in Physiology. B.Sc. 
1972, Ph.D. 1976, University of Mel- 
bourne (Australia) 

Reeves, John P, Adjunct Associate Professor of 
Physiology and Biophysics. B.S. 1964, 
Juniata College; Ph.D. 1969, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology 

Reidenberg, Marcus M., Professor of Pharma- 
cok)gy M.D. 1958, Temple University 

Reis, Donald J., George C. Cotzias Distin- 
guished Professor of Neurology. A.B. 
1953, M.D. 1956, Cornell University 



78 



Rifkind, Arleen B., Professor of Pharmacology; 
Associate Professor of Medicine. B.A. 
1960, Bryn Mawr College; M.D. 1964, 
New York University 

Rifkind, Richard A., Director, Sloan-Kettering 
Division, Professor of Cell Biology and 
Genetics. B.S. 1951, Yale University; 
M.D. 1955, Columbia University 

Riker, Walter EJr, Revlon Pharmaceuticals 
Emeritus Professor of Pharmacolog>. 
B.S. 1939, Columbia University; M.D. 
1943, Cornell University 

Rodriguez-Bouland, Enrique, Associate Pro- 
fessor of Cell Biologv' and Anatomy B.A. 

1963, National College of Buenos Aires; 
M.D. 1970, University' of Buenos Aires 
(Argentina) 

Rosen, Ora M., Professor of Molecular Biology. 
B.A. 1956, Barnard College; M.D. I960, 
Columbia University' 

Rothermel, Constance Davis, Assistant Profes- 
sor of Microbiology' in Medicine. B.S. 

1964, West Virginia University; M.S. 
1967, University of North (^arolina; 
Ph.D. 19S0, C:ornell University (iradu- 
ate School of Medical Sciences 

Rottenberg, David A., Associate Professor of 
Neurology. B.A. 1963, University of 
Michigan; M.Sc. 1967 L'niversity of 
Cambridge ( England); M.D. 1969, Har- 
vard University 

Rubin, Albert L, Professor of Biochemistry 

Professor of Surgery Professor of Medi- 
cine. M.D. 1950, Cornell University 

Ruggiero, David A., Assistant Professor of 

Neurobiology in Neurology. B.A. 1972, 
Queens College of the City University 
of New York; M A. 1976, M. Phil. 1977, 
Ph.D. 1977 Columbia University 

Saad, Anuradha D., Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy B.A. 1977 Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania; Ph.D. 1982, Uni- 
versity of Chicago 

Santos-Buch, Charles A., Professor of Pathol- 
ogy. A.B. 1953, Harvard University; 
M D. 1957 Cornell University 

Saxena, Brij B., Professor of Endocrinology in 
Obstetrics and Gynecology. Ph.D. 1954, 
University of Lucknow ( India ); D.Sc. 
1957 University of Miinster (Germany); 
Ph.D. 1961, University of Wisconsin 



Schleifer, Leonard S., Assistant Professor of 
Neurology A.B. 1973, Cornell Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1977 University of Virginia 
School of Medicine; Ph.D. 1980, Univer- 
sity of Virginia 

Schubert, Edward T, Assistant Professor of 
Biochemistry in Pediatrics. B.S. 1949, 
M.S. 1952, Ph.D. 1959, Fordham 
University 

Schwartz, Morton K., Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. B.A. 1948, Lehigh University; 
Ph.D. 1952, Boston University 

Sechzer, Jeri A., Associate Professor of Psy- 
chology in Psychiatry B.S. 1956, New 
York University; M A. 1961, Ph.D. 1962, 
University of Pennsylvania 

Senterfit, Laurence B., Professor of Microbiol- 
ogy. Professor of Pathology. B.S. 1949, 
M.S. 1950, University of Florida; Sc.D. 
1955, Johns Hopkins University 

Shapiro, Joan Rankin, Assistant Professor of 
Cell Biology in Neurology. B.S. I960, 
Westminster College; M.S. 1968, New 
York University; M A. 1970, Hofstra Uni- 
versity; Ph.D. 1979, Cornell University 

Sheffery, Michael, Assistant Professor of Mo- 
lecular Biology. A.B. 1975, M.S. 1977 
Ph.D. 1981, Princeton University 

Sherline, Peter, Associate Professor of Medi- 
cine. A.B. and M.D. 1968, Boston Uni- 
versity Medical School 

Sherman, Stephanie L., Assistant Professor of 
Cell Biology and Genetics. B.S. 1975, 
North Carolina State University; Ph.D. 
1981, Indiana University Medical 
School 

Silverstein, Roy L., Clinical Assistant Professor 
of Medicine. B.S. 1975, Brown Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1979, Emory University 
School of Medicine 

Siniscalco, Marcello, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. M.D. 1948, University of 
Naples (Italy) 

Sirlin, Julio L, Professor of Cell Biology and 
Anatomy D.Sc. 1953, University of 
Buenos Aires (Argentina) 



79 



Sirotnak, Francis M., Professor of Pharmacol- 
og\'. B.S. 1950, Univcrlsity of Scranton; 
Ph.D. 1954, University of Maryland 

Siskind, Gregory W., Professor of Medicine. 
B.A. 1955, Cornell University; M.D. 
1959, New York University' 

Smith, Gerard P, Professor of Psychiatry ( Be- 
havioral Science). B.S. 1956, St. Joseph's 
College; M.D. 1960, University of 
Pennsylvania 

Sofifer, Richard L., Professor of Biochemistry. 
Professor of Medicine. B.A. 1954, Am- 
herst College; M.D. 1958, Harvard 
University 

Sonenberg, Martin, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. B.S. 1941, University of 
Pennsylvania; M.D. 1944, Ph.D. 1952, 
New York University 

Staiano-Coico, Lisa, Assistant Professor of Mi- 
crobiolog}' in Surgery B.S. 1976, Brook- 
lyn College; Ph.D. 1981, Cornell Univer- 
sity' Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences 

Stenzel, Kurt H., Professor of Biochemistry. 

Professor of Surgery Professor of Medi- 
cine. B.S. 1954, New York University; 
M.D. 1958, Cornell University 

Stephenson, John L., Professor of Biomathe- 
matics in Physiology- and Biophysics. 
B.A. 1943, Harvard University; M.D. 

1949, University of Illinois 

Stokes, Peter E., Professor of Medicine. Profes- 
sor of Psychiatry B.S. 1958, Trinity Col- 
lege; M.D. 1952, Cornell University 

Stutman, Osias, Professor of Immunology. B.A. 

1950, Colegio Nacional Sarmiento (Ar- 
gentina); M.D. 1957, Buenos Aires Uni- 
versity Medical School (Argentina) 

Sugg, John V, Emeritus Professor of Microbiol- 
ogy. A.B. 1926, M.S. 1928, Ph.D. 1931, 
Vanderbilt University 

Sussdorf, Dieter H., Associate Dean. Associate 
Professor of Microbiology'. B.A. 1952, 
University' of Missouri; Ph.D. 1956, Uni- 
versity of (Chicago 

Szabo, Paul, Assistant Professor of Molecular 
Biology in Medicine. B.S. 1971, Ph.D. 
1974, University of Illinois 

Szeto, Hazel H., Associate Professor of Phar- 
macology. B.S. 19''2, Indiana University; 
Ph.D., M.D. 1977, Cornell University 



Tate, Suresh S., Associate Professor of Bio- 
chemistry B SC. 1958, M.Sc. I960, Uni- 
versity of Baroda ( India ); Ph.D. 1963, 
University of London ( England ) 

Teintze, Martin, Assistant Professor of Cell Bi- 
ology and Anatomy. B.S. 1976, Califor- 
nia Institute of Technology; Ph.D. 1981, 
University' of California 

Teitelman, Gladys N., Associate Research Pro- 
fessor of Neurobiology in Neurology. Li- 
cendiada in Biology 1962, University' of 
Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ph.D. 1971, 
University of Pennsylvania 

Thaler, Howard T, Assistant Professor of De- 
velopmental Therapy and Clinical In- 
vestigation. B.A. 1967, University of Cal- 
ifornia at Los Angeles; Ph.D. 1974, State 
University' of New York at Buffalo 

Townes- Anderson, Ellen, Assistant Professor 
of Physiology and Biophysics. B.A. 
1968, Connecticut College; M A. 1971, 
University of California at Berkeley; 
Ph.D. 1980, Boston University School of 
Medicine 

Traktman, Paula, Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy Assistant Profes- 
sor of Cell Biology and Anatomy in Mi- 
crobiology. A.B. 1974, Radcliffe College, 
Harvard University; Ph.D. 1981, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology 

Udenfriend, Sidney, Adjunct Professor of Bio- 
chemistry B.S. 1939, City' College of 
New York; M.S. 1942, Ph.D. 1948, New 
York University' 

Urban, Bernd W., Assistant Professor of Anes- 
thesiology. Assistant Professor of Anes- 
thesiology in Physiology and Biophys- 
ics. Diplom der Physik ( Master ) 1974, 
University' of Karlsruhe (West Ger- 
many); Ph.D. 1978, University of Cam- 
bridge ( England ) 

Victor, Jonathan D., Associate Professor of 

Neurology. B.A. 1973, Harvard Univer- 
sity; Ph.D. 1979, Rockefeller University; 
M.D. 1980, Cornell University Medical 
College 

Wall, Doris A., Assistant Professor of Cell Biol- 
ogy and Anatomy B.A. 1970, University 
of New Hampshire; Ph.D. 1975, Cornell 
University' 

Watanabe, Kyoichi A., Professor of Pharmacol- 
ogy. Ph.D. 1963, Hokkaido University 
(Japan) 



80 



Weinstein, Alan M., Associate Professor of 
Physiologv and Biophysics. Assistant 
Professor of Medicine. A.B. 19^1. 
Princeton University ; M.D. 19"^5, Har- 
vard University 

Weksler, Babette B., Professor of Medicine. 
B.A. 1958, Swarthmore College; M.D. 
1963, Columbia University' 

Weksler, Marc E., Irving Shen;vood Wright 
Professor of Geriatrics in Medicine. 
B.A. 1958, Swarthmore College; M.D. 
1962, Columbia University 

Wellner, Daniel, Associate Professor of Bio- 
chemistry. A.B. 1956, Harvard Univer- 
sity; Ph.D. 1961, Tufts University 

White, Perrin C, Associate Professor of Pedi- 
atrics. A.B. 1972, Harvard University; 
M.D. 1976, Harvard Medical School 

Windhager, Erich E., Maxwell M. I pson Pro- 
fessor of Physiology and Biophysics. 
M.D. 1954, University of Vienna 
(Austria) 

Wong, George Y, Associate Professor of De- 
velopmental Therapy and Clinical In- 
vestigation. B.A. 19^3, Rice University; 
M.A. 19^5. Ph.D. 19^8, Harvard 
University 



Woods, Kenneth R., Adjunct Associate Profes- 
sor of Biochemistry. B.A. 1948, Arizona 
State University; Ph.D. 1955, University 
of Minnesota 

Yang, Soo Young, Assistant Professor of Immu- 
nology. M.S. 19"'2, Minnesota State Uni- 
versity; Ph.D. 1981, New York 
University- 
Young, Robert C, Associate Professor of Psy- 
chiatry in Neurobiology. B.A. 1969, Wil- 
liams College; M.D. 1974, Cornell 
University 

Zakim, David, Vincent Astor Distinguished . 
Professor of Medicine. B.A. 1956, Cor- 
nell University; M.D. 1961, State Univer- 
sity of New \brk Downstate Medical 
Center 

Zeitz, Louis, Associate Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. A.B. 1948, L niversity of California; 
Ph.D. 1962, Stanford University 



81 



Degree Recipients 1987-88 



Doctors of Philosophy 

Abate, Corinnc, B.A. 1983, Fordham Univer- 
sity. Neurobiology' and Behavior, Profes- 
sor Tong H. job. Thesis: "Biochemical 
Studies on the Organization of Func- 
tional Domains of Tyrosine 
Hydroxylase." 

Batter, David Keith, B.S. 1979, University of 
Connecticut. Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics, Professor Barry B. Kaplan. Thesis: 
"The Isolation, Characterization and 
Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the 
Gene Encoding Bovine Phenylethano- 
lamine N-Methyltransferase." 

Buck, Charles Randall, B.S. 1983, College of 
Idaho. Cell Biology and Genetics, Pro- 
fessor Moses V. Chao. Thesis: "The 
Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Gene: 
Developmental ly Regulated Expression 
of the mRNA in the Periphery and 
Brain." 

Clurman, Bruce E., B.A. 1981, University of 
Virginia. Molecular Biology, Professor 
William S. Hayward. Thesis: "Multiple 
Oncogene Activations and Avian Leuko- 
sis Virus- Induced Lymphomagenesis." 

del Balzo, Ughetta, B.A. 1981, Barnard Col- 
lege. Pharmacology, Professor Roberto 
Levi. Thesis: "C3a Anaphylatoxin and 
the Heart, An Immunopharmacological 
Study." 

Drozdoff, Vladimir V, B.A. 1979, Bowdoin 
College. Developmental Therapy and 
Clinical Investigation, Professor Louis 
Zeitz. Thesis: "Radiation-induced 
Transformation in Oncogene Primed 
C3H lOTl/2 Cells; a New System for 
Analysis of Multi-step Transformation." 

Gamble, David A., D.VM. 1978, Washington 
State University. Microbiology, Immu- 
nology, and Pathology, Professor Marc 
Weksler. Thesis: "The Analysis of c-myc 
Expression in Human Lymphocytes in 
Relationship to Proliferation and the Ef- 
fects of Aging." 

Greenlee, Paul G., B.S. 1977 D.VM. 1980, M.S. 
1982, Oklahoma State University Mi- 
crobiology, Immunology, and Pathology, 
Professor Fred Quimby. Thesis: "Mor- 
phologic and Immunologic Character i 
zation and Response to Therapy of (Ca- 
nine Lymphoma." 



Gulati, Poonam, B.A. 1982, Cornell University. 
Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathol- 
ogy, Professor Gregory Siskind. Thesis: 
"Regulation of Antibody Secretion by 
Hybridoma Cells." 

Hwang, Onyou, A.B. 1982, Smith College. 

Neurobiology and Behavior, Professor 
Tong H. Job. Thesis: "Biochemical and 
Molecular Biological Studies on the 
Structure of Dopamine B-Hydroxylase." 

Kelly Catherine D., B.A. 1981, State University 
of New York at Purchase. Microbiology, 
Immunology, and Pathology, Professor 
Henry Murray. Thesis: "Sources and 
Mechanisms of Soluble Microbial Anti- 
gen-Induced Human Interferon-Gamma 
Generation." 

Knudsen, Beatrice S., M.S. 1982, University of 
Vienna. Cell Biology and Genetics, Pro- 
fessor Ralph Nachman. Thesis: "Con- 
trol of Fibrinolysis by the Extracellular 
Matrix." 

LeStrange, Renee C, B.A. 1978, University of 
North Carolina. Molecular Biology, Pro- 
fessor William S. Hayward. Thesis: "Mo- 
lecular Analysis of the 8; 14 Transloca- 
tion in Burkitt's Lymphoma and 
Associated Changes in the C-MYC 
Gene." 

Maurer, David Henry, A.B. 1977, Cornell Uni- 
versity. Immunology, Professor Marilyn 
S. Pollack. Thesis: "Studies of the 
Gamma-Interferon Regulated Antigen- 
Presentation Capacity of Human Der- 
mal Fibroblasts." 

Mok, Minsen, B.A. 1982, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity. Molecular Biology, Professor 
Kenneth J. Marians. Thesis: "Studies on 
DNA Replication Forks Reconstituted 
in vitro with Purified Escherichia coli 
DNA Replication Proteins." 

Nocka, Karl H., B.A. 1983, Bowdoin C.oUege. 
Cell Biology and Genetics, Professor 
Louis Pelus. Thesis: "Mechanisms of 
Bone Marrow Accessory Cell Regula- 
tion of Hematopoiesis." 

Robertson, Donna A., B.S. 1979, Syracuse Uni- 
versity Pharmacology, Professor Ro- 
berto Levi. Thesis: "Platelet Activating 
Factor ( PAF ): C:ardiac Actions and 
Mechanisms." 



82 



St. Angelo, Carol E., B.S. 1981, Mississippi Uni- 
versity for Women. Molecular Biology, 
Professor Robert Krug. Thesis: 
"Expression of the Influenza Virus Poly- 
merase and Nucleocapsid Proteins and 
Reconstitution Studies with the Ex- 
pressed Proteins." 

Sehgal, Amita, B.Sc. 1981, Delhi University' 
(India); M.Sc. 1983, Jawaharial Nehru 
University School of Life Sciences (In- 
dia). Cell Biology and Genetics, Profes- 
sor Moses V Chao. Thesis: "Characteri- 
zation and Expression of the Gene 
Encoding the Human NGF Receptor" 

Shaffer, Rose Mary B.S. 1980, Loyola College. 
Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathol- 
ogy Professor Paula Traktman. Thesis: 
"Vaccinia Virus Topoisomerase: Purifi- 
cation and Characterization of an En- 
zyme Encapsidated by Vaccinia Virus 
with the Properties of a Eucaryotic 
Type I Topoisomerase." 

Teumer, Jeflfrey K., B.A. 1979, Colgate Univer- 
sity. Molecular Biology, Professor Ed- 
ward Stavnezer Thesis: "The Trans- 
forming Activities of Spontaneous and 
Induced Variants of ^/fe/ Containing 
Retroviruses." 



83 



Underwood, Mark, B.A. 1981, University of 
Vermont. Neurobiology and Behavior, 
Professor Donald J. Reis. Thesis: "Con- 
trol of the Cerebral Circulation and Me- 
tabolism by the Rostral Ventrolateral 
Medulla: Possible Role in the Cerebro- 
vascular Response to Hypoxia." 

von Kreuter, Betsy, B.S. 1982, University of 
Vermont. Microbiology, Immunology, 
and Pathology, Professor Charles San- 
tos-Buch. Thesis: "The Molecular Basis 
of Recognition of Host Cells by Trypa- 
nosoma crtizi/' 

Weinstein, Catherine L, B.S. 1982, State Uni; 
versity of New \brk at Stony Brook. Bio- 
chemistry, Professor Owen Griffith. 
Thesis: "Cysteinesulfinate Decarboxyl- 
ase: Characterization, Inhibition, and 
Metabolic Role in Taurine Formation." 



Students 1988-89 

Candidates for the Degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy 

Abraham, Dicky G., M.S. 1987, Indian Institute 
of Technolog}'. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Bombay, India 

Ahn, Jong C, B.S. 1979, Seoul National Univer- 
sit>'; M.S. 1981, Korea Advanced Insti- 
tute of Science and Technology. Major: 
Molecular Biology. Gyounggido, Korea 

Arnold, James B., B.A. 1982, Columbia Col- 
lege. Major: Neurobiology and Behav- 
ior. New York, New York 

Bannerji, Rajat, B.A. 1986, Cornell University 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. Dur- 
gapur, India 

Barnhart, Kerry M., B.S. 1983, M.S. 1985, Uni- 
versity' of Arizona. Major: Molecular Bi- 
ology. Tucson, Arizona 

Bauchwitz, Robert P, B.A. 1982, Harvard Uni- 
versity Major: Molecular Biology. Wil- 
mington, Delaware 

Bayer, Virginia E., B.A./B.S. 1981, University of 
California. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Newport Beach, California 

Becker, Murray, B.A. 1985, University of Chi- 
cago. Major: Physiology and Biophys- 
ics. Chicago, Illinois 

Berger, Scott B., B.A. 1983, Emory University. 
Major: Neurobiology and Behavior. 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Bisaha, Joseph G., B.A. 1986, Rutgers Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Perth Amboy, New Jersey 

Bosenberg, Marcus, B.A. 1976, Cornell Uni- 
versity. Middlesex, N.J. 

Bradley Roger S., B.A. 1984, Carroll College. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. Lau- 
rel, Montana 

Brayton, Cory Flagg, B.A. 1981, Williams Col- 
lege; D.V.M. 1985, New York State Col- 
lege of Veterinary Medicine. Major: Mi- 
crobiology, Immunology, and Pathology. 
New York, New York 

Brock, Alice M., A.B. 1978, Smith College; 

M.S.H.S. 1980, Northeastern University 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics, 
Scarsdale, New York 



Brooks, David G., B.A. 1982, University of Col- 
orado; M.S. 1984, Michigan State Uni- 
versity. Major: Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics. Rochester, Michigan 

Chiu, Chang-Fang, M.D. 1980, Taipei Medical 
College. Major: Pharmacology. Taipei, 
Taiwan, Republic of China 

Chu, Tang-Yuan, M.D. 1983, National Defense 
Medical Center. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of 
China 

Claude, Alejandro, M.S. 1987, Universidad 

Catholica ( Chile ). Major: Molecular Bi- 
ology, Santiago, Chile 

Crombie, Andrea R., B.A. 1981, Goucher Col- 
lege. Major: Molecular Biology. San 
Diego, California 

Cupp, Judith A., B.S., B.A. 1987 Missouri 

Southern State College. Major: Immu- 
nology. Carl Junction, Missouri 

de Bruin, Derik, B.S. 1986, Eastern New Mex- 
ico University. Major: Molecular Biol- 
ogy. Por tales, New Mexico 

DeCarlo, MicheleJ., B.A. 1986, Lafayette Col- 
lege. Major: Molecular Biology Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania 

Dicker, Adam P, B.A. 1984, Columbia Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Great Neck, New York 

DiSanto, James P, B.A. 1983, Johns Hopkins 

University Major: Immunology Cherry 
Hill, New Jersey 

Donnelly Robert E., B.S. 1985, University of 
California. Major: Biochemistry. Cuper- 
tino, California 

Dratt, Sharon D., B.A. 1984, Sarah Lawrence 
College; M.S. 1987 University of Hawaii 
at Manoa. Major: Immunology. Hono- 
lulu, Hawaii 

Edwards-Gilbert, (iretchen E., B.A. 1982, 

Swarthmore College. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Syracuse, New York 

'in absentia 
-leave of absence 
Candidate for degree only 



84 



Einheber, Steven, B.S. 1981, George Washing- 
ton University. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Washington, D C. 

Eisenberg, Carol Ann, B.S., B.A. 1981, Cabrini 
College; M.S. 1983, Villanova University 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. Hav- 
ertown, Pennsylvania 

Ennulat, Cynthia L, B.A. 1980, State University 
of New York, Oswego; M.S. 1985, Syra- 
cuse University. Major: Cell Biolog>' and 
Genetics. Brewerton, New York 

Erickson, David A., B.A. 1985, University of 
California at Santa Cruz. Major: Phar- 
macology. San Diego, California 

Escandon, Enrique M., B.S. 1983, M.S. 1985, 
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de 
Mexico. Major: C^ell Biok)gy and Genet- 
ics. Mexico City, Mexico 

Evans, Elizabeth V, B.A. 1980, Bennington 

College. Major: C.ell Bk)k)gy and Genet- 
ics. Lajolla, (California 

Febbraio, Maria, B.S. 1982, Fordham Univer- 
sity. Major: Microbk)k)g\', Immunology, 
and Pathok)gy. Staten Island, New York 

Fernandez-Almonacid, Rafael, B.Sc. 1980, 
M.Sc. 1985, Universidad Austral De 
CChile. Major: Molecular Biolog\'. Valdi- 
via, (>hile 

Firpo, Meri T, B.A. 1984, Carroll CCollege. Ma- 
jor: Cell Bk)logy and Genetics. Helena, 
Montana 

Folger, Paula A., B.A. 1986, University of Cali- 
fornia at Santa Ouz. Major: Cell Biol- 
ogy' and Genetics. Santa (>ruz, 
California 

Fotheringham, R. Scott, B.Sc. 1985, University 
of Guelph. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Ontario, Canada 

^Foxman, Brett, B.A. 1982, Boston University; 
M.D. 1982, Boston University School of 
Medicine. Major: Neurobiology and Be- 
havior Penn Valley, Pennsylvania 

Garepapaghi, Mohammed A., B.A. 1987, Bow- 
doin College of Maine. Major: Physiol- 
ogy and Biophysics. Orumieh, Iran 

Geisberg, Mark S., B.S. 1985, Yale University 
Major: Immunology. Leningrad, USSR 

Glickstein, Lisa J., B.S. 1987, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Major: Immunology. Apalachin, 
New York 



Greenberg, Adam, A.B. 1981, Bard College. 

Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. New 
Rochelle, New York 

'Groden, Joanna L., B.A. 1978, Middlebury 

College. Major: Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics. Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Grim, Felix, B.A. 1987 Girton College, Cam- 
bridge University ( England ). Major: Im- 
munology'. Surrey, England 

'Gummere, Gregory R., B.A. 1979, M.S. 1981, 
University of Cincinnati. Major: Cell Bi- 
ology and Genetics. Cincinnati, Ohio 

Gundersen, Doris L, B.A. 1977, Clark Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biok)gy and Genetics. 
West Babylon, New York 

Hagler, Jeremiah, B.A. 1987 University of Cali- 
fornia at Santa Cruz. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Santa Cruz, California 

Hahn, Mounou, B.S. 1985, University of Wis- 
consin. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Seoul, Korea 

Hahn, Soonjung Lucia, B.S. 1983, Seoul Na- 
tional University; M.S. 1985, University 
of Wisconsin. Major: Molecular Biology 
Seoul, Korea 

Hawkins, Denise A., B.S. 1987, Scripps Col- 
lege. Major: Pharmacology. San Dimas, 
California 

Hearn, Timothy J., B.S. 1983, Penn State Uni- 
versity. Major: Neurobiology and Be- 
havior Camp Hill, Pennsylvania 

Heinrich, N.Julia, B.A. 1977 Brown University 
Major: Molecular Biology. New York, 
New York 

Hodgins, Gregory W. L, B.Sc. 1985, University 
of Toronto. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Ontario, Canada 

Hong, Guangyuan, B.S. 1982, M.S. 1985, Pe- 
king University. Major: Molecular Biol- 
ogy. Peking, People's Republic of China 

Huang, Chin-shiou, B.S. 1982, Kaohsiung Med- 
ical College; M.S. 1984, National Tsing 
Hua University Hsinchu, Taiwan 

Huang, Hsien-Bin, B.S. 1984, M.S. 1986, Na- 
tional Taiwan Normal University 
(Taipei). Major: Biochemistry Taipei, 
Taiwan, Republic of China 

Hume, Clifford R., B.A. 1983, Carleton Col- 
lege. Major: Immunology Incline Vil- 
lage, Nevada 



85 



Jenkins, Deborah L, B.A. 1983, Williams Col- 
lege. Major: Biochemistry. Amherst, 
Massachusetts 

Johnson, Ellen L., B.A. 1983, Oberlin College. 
Major: Molecular Biology. Tarpon 
Springs, Florida 

Kane, Eileen M., B.A. 1985, Hunter College. 
Major: Molecular Biologx: New York, 
New York 

Kanter, Madge R., B.A. 1982, University- of Cal- 
ifornia at Santa Cruz. Major: Molecular 
Biolog)'. Palo Alto, California 

Kenny, Mark K., B.A. 1983, Wesleyan Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. Chappa- 
qua. New York 

Kim, Chul Geun, B.S. 1981, Han Yang Univer- 
sity; M.S. 1983, Seoul National Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. Yesan, 
Korea 

Kornack, David R., B.S. 1983, Northern Illinois 
University'. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior Lombard, Illinois 

Kiinzi, Myriam S., B.A. 1984, Wellesley Col- 
lege. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Upper Malboro, Maryland 

'Lader, Eric Scott, B.S. 1981, Brooklyn College. 
Major: Cell Biologv' and Genetics. 
Brooklyn, New York 

Lander, Harry B.S. 1987 State University- of 
New York at Stony Brook. Major: Bio- 
chemistry. Lido Beach, New York 

Lee, Jin-Moo, B.A. 1985, Yale University. Major: 
Neurobiology and Behavior. Fort Wash- 
ington, Maryland 

Lee, Myung Soo, M.D. 1979, M.M.S. 1980 

Seoul National University (Korea). Ma- 
jor: Immunology Dongdaemum-ku, 
Seoul, Korea 

Leonard, Christopher, J., B.S. 1985, Cornell 

University. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology, and Pathology. Rochester, New 
York 

Li, Luyuan, Graduate Certificate 1982, Si- 
chuan University. Major: Biochemistry. 
Zunyi City, People's Republic of China 

Li, Mingxia, B.S. 1982, Beijing Second Medical 
College: M.S. 1985, Chinese Academy of 
Medical Sciences. Major: Pharmacol- 
ogy. Beijing, C^hina 

Lim, Lorena C, B.S. 1979, University of the 

Philippines at Los Banos. Major: Molec- 
ular Biology. Laguna, Philippines. 



Lisanti, Michael, P, B.A. 1985, New York Uni- 
versity. Major: Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics. Rockaway Beach, New York 

Litherland, Sally A., B.S. 1981, University of 

Florida; M.S. 1983 University of Florida. 
Major: Microbiology, Immunology, and 
Pathology. Satellite Beach, Florida 

Liu, Su, M.D. 1982, Shanghai First Medical Col- 
lege. Major: Molecular Biology Hunan, 
China 

Lu, Bai, B.S. 1982, East China Normal Univer- 
sity; M.Sc. 1985, Shanghai First Medical 
College. Major: Neurobiology and Be- 
havior. Shanghai, People's Republic of 
China 

McAuliffe, Josephine M., B.S. 1987 Rochester 
Institute of Technology. Major: Molecu- 
lar Biology. Poughkeepsie, New York 

McDonald, William E, B.A. 1985, University of 
Florida. Major: Microbiology, Immunol- 
ogy, and Pathology. Jacksonville, Florida 

McNerney Mary Ellen, B.S. 1977 M.S. 1983, St. 
John's University. Major: Pharmacology. 
Huntington, New York 

Maddock, Anne E., B.A. 1985, Yale University. 
Major: Physiology and Biophysics. Fair- 
field, Connecticut 

Mahajan, Rohit, B.A. 1984, Swarthmore Col- 
lege. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 

Maher, Kevin J., B.S. 1984, Manhattan College. 
Major: Microbiology, Immunology, and 
Pathology. Yonkers, New York 

Mahmood, Umar, B.A. 1987, California Insti- 
tute of Technology. Rockville, Maryland 

Maki, Robert G., B.A. 1985, Northwestern Uni- 
versity. Major: Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics. Omaha, Nebraska 

Mandell, James W, A.B. 1984, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Major: Neurobiology and Behavior. 
Charlottesville, Virginia 

Marino, Michael W, B.A. 1983, Skidmore Col- 
lege; M.S. 1985, University of Texas. Ma- 
jor: Cell Biology and Genetics. Racine, 
Wisconsin 

-Martinez, Humberto Jose, M.D. 1975, Univer- 
sity of Zulia Medical School (Venezu- 
ela). Major: Neurobiology and Behav- 
ior. Maracaibo, Venezuela 

Mayer, Alan, B.S. 1986, M.S. 12/1986, Emory 
University. Miami Beach, Florida 



86 



Meyers, Lillian R. S., A.B. 1984, Brown Univer- 
sity- Major: Molecular Biology: Chicago, 
Illinois 

Moncrieff. Patrice M., B.S. 1984, Boston Col- 
lege. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Park Ridge, New Jersey 

Moran, Lorraine M., A.B. 1982, Mount Holyoke 
College; M.S. 1984, St. John's llniversit>. 
Major: Molecular Biology. New York, 
New York 

Morham, Scott G., B.S. 1981, Hobart College; 
M.S. 1985, Texas A&M liniversit>. Ma- 
jor: Molecular Biolog\. Tarrytown, New 
York 

Muench, Marcus C)., A S. 1983, College of 

Marin; B.S. 1986, Universit>' of Califor- 
nia. Major: (.ell Biology and Genetics. 
San Francisco. C^alifornia 

Murakami, Monica S., B.S. 1986, University of 
Maryland. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Yokohama, Japan 

Naftzger, Clarissa, B.A. 1985, Universit\' of Cali- 
fornia at Berkeley. Major: Immunolog}-. 
I^Jolla, California 

Nicholson, Andrew C, B.S. 1973, D.V.M. 1976, 
Michigan State University. Major: Mi- 
crobiology, Inimunolog). and Patholog)-. 
Bangor, Maine 

Nussenzveig, Daniel R., M l). 1980, University 
of Sao Paulo. Major: Physiology and 
Biophysics. Sao Paulo, Brazil 

O'Malley Edward K., B.S. 1985, SL'm' Stony 
Brook. Major: Neurobiology' and Be 
havior. New ^brk. New ^brk 

Onel, Kenan, B.S. 1984, M A. 1985, Yale Uni- 
versity. Scarsdale, New York 

Onrust, Rene, B.S. 1983, M.S. 1985, Auckland 
University ( New Zealand ). Chri- 
stchurch. New Zealand 

Parada, Camilo A., B.S. 19 "^8, Licence Biology- 
( Master of Science ) 198 1, Catholic L'ni- 
versity of Valparaiso (Chile). Major: Mo- 
lecular Biology. White Plains, New York 

Patil, NilaJ., B.A. 1980, University of Buffalo. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. Buf- 
falo, New \brk 

-Pearse, Roger N., B.A. 1977 Dartmouth Col- 
lege. Major: Microbiology, Immunology; 
and Pathology. Newport, Rhode Island 

Pincus, David W, B.S. 1985, Yale University: 
Hampden, Massachusetts 



Przybyiowski, Mark D., B.S. 1/1987 Rutgers 
liniversity. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Sayreville, New Jersey 

Qiu, Feihua, M.D. 1979, Beijing Medical Col- 
lege. Major: Molecular Biology. Shang- 
hai, People's Republic of China 

Qiu, Wei-Qiao, M.D. 1982, Peking Medical 

College. Major: Molecular Biology: Pe- 
king, People's Republic of China 

Ramakrishna, Naren R., B.A. 1985, Johns Hop- 
kins University: Charleston, West 
Virginia 

Rempel, Rachel E., B.Sc. 1986, liniversity of 
Toronto. Major: Cell Biology and Ge- 
netics. Oxford, England 

Roberts, Gretchen D., B.S. 19''6, George 

Washington University: Major: Cell Biol- 
ogy and Genetics. Brooklyn, New \brk 

Romanski, Lizabeth M., B.A. 1985, Rutgers 
University: Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior Fort V(brth, Texas 

^Rosenberg, c:harles D., A.B. 19~8, Washing- 
ton liniversity; M.S. 19''9. State Univer- 
sity of New York at Buffalo. Major: Cell 
Biology and Genetics. Merrick, New 
York 

Rosenberg, Elizabeth A., B.A. 1981, Wesleyan 
University. Major: Biochemistry New 
York, New York 

Roth, Adam, B.A. 1987 University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Major: Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics. Cleveland, Ohio 

Roy Nita, B.A. 1987 Hood College. Major: Mo- 
lecular Biology: Bangalore, India 

Rubin, Brian, B.S. 1984, M A. 1985, Yale I'ni- 
versity: Scarsdale, New York 

Rubino, Heidi M., B.S. 1980, Muhlenberg Col- 
lege. Major: Biochemistry: New York, 
New York 

Russell, David S., B.A. 1982, Oberlin College. 
Major: Molecular Biology: Chagrin Falls, 
Ohio 

Sawyer, Douglas B., B.S. 1984, Cornell Univer- 
sity: Major: Physiology and Biophysics. 
Beverly, Massachusetts 

Schlemmer, Scott, B.S. 1987 Bowling Green 
State University: Major: Pharmacology 
Stow, Ohio 

Seo, Yeon Soo, B.S. 1982, M.S. 1984, Seoul Na- 
tional University ( Korea ). Major: Molec- 
ular Biology Seoul, Korea 



87 



Sgouros, George, B.S. 1984, Columbia Univer- 
sity. Major: Physiology and Biophysics. 
Munich, Germany 

Sherwood, Peter, B.S. 1985, Cornell University. 
Major: Molecular Biology. Ithaca, New 
York 

Signorelli, Kathy L., B.A. 1982, Wellesley Col- 
lege. Major: Molecular Biology. Strongs- 
ville, Ohio 

'Solomon, David H., A.B. 1982, Oberlin Col- 
lege. Major: Immunology. Montreal, 
Canada 

-Sordillo, Emilia M., A.B. 1976, Harvard Uni- 
versity; M.D. 1980, Cornell University 
Major: Immunology. New York, New 
York 

Steiner, Lisa E., B.S. 1985, Cornell University 
Major: Developmental Therapy and 
Clinical Investigation. Batavia, New 
York 

Stole, Einar, B.S. 1986, University of Washing- 
ton. Major: Biochemistry Seattle, 
Washington 

Straub, Richard E., B.A. 1982, New College. 

Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. New 
York, New York 

Stricter, Jon W, A.B. 1985, Princeton Univer- 
sity Major: Physiology and Biophysics. 
Brooklyn, New York 

Studwell, Patricia S., B.S. 1984, State Univer- 
sity of New York. Major: Microbiology, 
Immunology, and Pathology. Green- 
wich, Connecticut 

Stukenberg, Peter Todd, B.S. 1986, Colgate 
University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Syracuse, New York 

Sullenger, Bruce A., B.S. 1986, Indiana Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biolog). Center- 
ville, Ohio 

Swarup, Rupendra, B.S. 1985, University of 
Maryland. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Rockville, Maryland 

Taddie, John A., B.S. 1986, Penn State Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. Indiana, 
Pennsylvania 

Tan, Jimmy C, B.S. 1985, Ateneo de Manila 
University Major: Molecular Biology. 
Manila, Philippines 

Tantravahi, JogiRaju V, B.A. 1984, Columbia 
University Major: Molecular Biok)gy. 
Waltham, Massachusetts 



Tavorath, Ranjana, B.S. 1983, Hindu College of 
Delhi (India); M.B.B.S. 1983, Lady Haid- 
inge Medical College of Delhi (India). 
Major: Molecular Biology London, 
England 

Thormodsson, Finnbogi R., B.Sc. 1980, Uni- 
versity of Iceland. Major: Neurobiology 
and Behavior. Reykjavik, Iceland 

^Till, Martha L, B.S. 1975, Colorado State Uni- 
versity. Major: Microbiology Immunol- 
ogy and Pathology Chicago, Illinois 

Treciokas, Amy B., B.A. 1987 Princeton Uni- 
versity. Major: Immunology. Needham, 
Massachusetts 

Tsukuda, Toyoko, A.A. 1975, Laney College; 
B.A. 1977 University of California. Ma- 
jor: Molecular Biology Osaka, Japan 

Tusie, M. Theresa, B.S. 1979, M.D. 1985, Na- 
tional University of Mexico. Major: Cell 
Biology and Genetics. Mexico City, 
Mexico 

Vaughan, Kevin, B.A. 1984, Hamilton College; 
M.S. 1986, State University of New York 
at Buffalo. Major: Cell Biology and Ge- 
netics. Buffalo, New York 

Walewski, Jose L, B.S. 1980, Pennsylvania 

State University; M A. 1984, Boston Uni- 
versity. Major: Pharmacology. Newton, 
Massachusetts 

Wong, Gwendolyn T, B.S. 1984, McMaster 

University (Canada). Major: Cell Biol- 
ogy and Genetics. Hamilton, Ontario, 
Canada 

Wu, Kai-Yuan, B.A. 1983, New York University 
Major: Molecular Biology. Shanghai, 
People's Republic of China 

Xixis, George A., B.S. 1987, Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology Major: Neuro- 
biology and Behavior. Whitestone, New 
York 

Yan, Hai, B.S. 1982, Nanjing University. Major: 
Cell Biology and Genetics. Wuxi City, 
People's Republic of China 

Yan, Ning, Diploma 1980, Nanjing University 
Major: Biochemistry Nanjing, People's 
Republic of China 

Yee, Nelson Shu-Sang, B.S. 1987 Massachu- 
setts College of Pharmacy and Allied 
Health Sciences. Quincy Massachusetts 



88 



Yokoyama, Midori, B.A. 1983, Pacific Lutheran 
University; M.S. 1985, Stanford Univer- 
sity. Major: Neurobiology and Behavior 
Tokyo, Japan 

Zavitz, Kenton H., B.Sc. 1986, University of To- 
ronto. Major: Molecular Biology. Niag- 
ara Falls, Canada 

Zebala, John A., B.S. 1986, University of South- 
ern California 

Zhu, Yuan-Shan, B.A. 1978, M.D. 1982, Hunan 
Medical College. Major: Pharmacology. 
Changsha, People's Republic of China 



Candidate for the Degree of 
Master of Science 

Cuerdon, Elizabeth E, B.S. 1985, Siena Col- 
lege. Major: Microbiology, Immunology, 
and Pathology Loudonville, New York 



89 



Entering Students 

August, Avery, B.A. 1987, University of Califor- 
nia, Los Angeles. Major: Immunology 
Belize 

Battleman, David, B.A. 1988, Johns Hopkins 
University. Plainview, New York 

Berg, Margaret, B.S. 1985, University of Illi- 
nois; M.S. 1987, Cornell University. Ma- 
jor: Cell Biology and Genetics. Chi- 
cago, Illinois 

Buck, Regina, B.A. 1988, Hunter College. Ma- 
jor: Immunology. Rottweil, West 
Germany 

Chen, Liu-Er, B.M. 1984, Anhui Medical Uni- 
versity ; M.S. 1987, Shanghai Institute of 
Materia Medica. Major: Neurobiology 
and Behavior. Anhui, China 

Cho, Hearn, A.B. 1988, Princeton University 
Akron, Ohio 

Cho, Sunghee, B.S. 1979, Yonsei University. 

Major: Neurobiology and Behavior Jin- 
hae, Korea 

Chong, Samuel S C., B.Sc. 1986, National Uni- 
versity of Singapore. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Singapore. 

Dimartino, Jorge, B.A. 1985, University of Cal- 
ifornia, Berkeley. Major: Immunology 
Rosario, Argentina 

Donnelly Thomas, B.VSc. 1979, University of 
Sydney; Dip. VP 1981, University of Syd- 
ney. Major: Biochemistry. Sydney, 
Australia 

Einarson, Margret, B.S. 1988, Bates College. 
Major: Molecular Biology Nev^ York, 
New York 

Elliott, Robert, A.B. 1983, University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley. Major: Neurobiology 
and Behavior. Los Angeles, California 

Fu, Yiping, B.M. 1988, Beijing Medical Univer- 
sity Major: Biochemistry Beijing, 
China 

Fuortes, Michele, M.D. 1979, University of 
Rome. Major: Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics. Rome, Italy 

Giire, Ali, M.D. 1988, University Of Ankara. 
Major: Immunology. Ankara, Turkey 



Hsu, Katharine, B.S. 1987, Stanford University; 
M.S. 1987, Stanford University. San Ma- 
rino, California 

Huang, Jinsheng, M B. 1986, National Taiwan 
University. Major: Pharmacology Tai- 
chung, Taiwan 

Huber, Louise Julie, B.S. 1985, Boston Univer- 
sity Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Boston, Massachusetts 

Huh, Sungoh, B.S., 1984, Seoul National Uni- 
versity. Major: Neurobiology and Be- 
havior. Seoul, Korea 

Jen, Yale I E., B.S. 1979, National Taiwan Uni- 
versity, M.S. 1982, Louisiana State Uni- 
versity. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Taipei, Taiwan. 

Lin, Fang-Tsyr, M.B. 1988, National Taiwan 
University. Major: Pharmacology. Kee- 
lung, Taiwan 

Liu, Qing, B.S. 1986, Nankai University. Major: 
Biochemistry. Tianjin, China 

Liu, Teddy B.S. 1987 SUNY at Buffalo. Major: 
Pharmacology. Hong Kong. 

Luo, Yan, B.M. 1987, Beijing Medical Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology Beijing, 
China 

Manley Geoffrey A & S 1988, University of 
Kentucky. Lexington, Kentucky 

Packer, Alan, B.A. 1988, Brandeis University. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. New 
Hyde Park, New York 

Ponomarefif, Gregory B.A. 1988, University of 
California, San Diego. Major: Molecular 
Biology Oakland, California 

Prescott, John, B.S. 1985, Cornell University 
Major: Molecular Biology. Minneapolis, 
Minnesota 

Rada, Cristina, B.A. 1980, 1.N.B. Cardenal Her- 
rera. M.D. 1987, Universidad Autonoma 
de Madrid. Major: Immunology Madrid, 
Spain 



90 



Smith, Cynthia, B.A. 1987, The Johns Hopkins 
University. Major: Ceil Biology and Ge- 
netics. Indiana, Pennsylvania 

Spector, Mona, B.S. 1980, Brooklyn College. 
Major: Molecular Biology. New York, 
New York 

Stern, Richard, B.S. 1986, University of Massa- 
chusetts. Major: Molecular Biology. 
New York, New York 

Taylor, Alice, B.S. 1985, Eastern Washington 
University. M.S. 1988, Eastern Washing- 
ton University Major: Immunology. Ak- 
ron, Ohio 



Vodovotz, Yoram, B.S. 1988, University of Wis- 
consin. Major: Immunology. Ramat 
Can, Israel 

Weiser, Michael, B.A. 1987, University of Ver- 
mont. Major: Neurobiok)gy and Behav- 
ior Brooklyn, New York 

Yaari, Hana, B.S. 1987 University of Southern 
California. Los Angeles, California 

Yang, Zhi, B.S. 1987, Beijing University. Major: 
Molecular Biology. Sichuan, China 



91 



Index 



Administration Register, 72 
Admission, 52 
Applications, 52 
Application Fee, 52 
Awards and Prizes, 57 

Biochemistry, 7, 61 

Biophysics, see Physiology and Biophysics 

Candidate-for-degree-only 56 
Cell Biology and Genetics, 11, 62 
Committees, Standing, 72 
Committee on Student Prizes, 72 
Courses, see under individual Programs 
Credentials Review Committee, 73 
Curriculum Committee, 73 

Degree Recipients, Register, 82 
Degree Requirements, 53 

Examinations, 55 
Executive Committee, 2, 72 

Faculty Register, 73 
Faculty Advisory Committee, 3, 72 
Faculty and Research Activities, 5 
Fellowships, see Scholarships and 

Fellowships 
Financial Assistance, 56 
Foreign Language Requirements, 55 

also see under individual Programs 

Genetics, 

see Cell Biology and Genetics 

see Molecular Biology 
Grades, 54 



M.D.-Ph.D. Program, 3, 59 
M.D.-Ph.D. Program Committee, 73 
Medical Scientist Training Program, 

see M.D.-Ph.D. Program 
Molecular Biology, 24, 64 

Neurobiology and Behavior, 30, 65 

Part-time Graduate Study, 54 
Ph.D.-M.D. Program, 4, 59 
Pharmacology, 36, 66 
Physiology and Biophysics, 43, 68 
Prizes, see Awards and Prizes 
Programs of Study 
Biochemistry 

Cell Biology and Genetics, 11, 62 
Immunology, 18, 63 
Molecular Biology, 24, 64 
Neurobiology and Behavior, 30, 65 
Pharmacology, 36, 66 
Physiology and Biophysics, 43, 68 
Provisional Candidacy 

Register, 71 
Registration, 54 

Research Activities, see under individual 

Programs 
Residence and Residence Units, 54 

Transfer of, 54 
Residence Halls, 58 

Requirements and Course Offerings, 49 

Scholarships and Fellowships, 57 
Special Committee, 53 
Special Students, 53 
Student Register, 84 
Summer Research, 54 



Health Services, 58 
Housing, see Residence Halls 

Immunology, 18, 63 
In Absentia, 54, 56 



Leave of Absence, 55, 56 



Thesis, 55 

Tuition and Fees, 55 



Virology, 

see Molecular Biology 



92